What is the Crimean War
The war of Crimean is a war that happened in the Crimean Peninsula from October 1853 to February 1856, in which Russia, Turkey (Ottoman Empire), United Kingdom, and France dueled besides Sardinia who supported the armies against Russia in January. The main reason of this war was the Russian aggression against Turkey (Ottoman Empire); and that when Russia forced the protection on the orthodox properties to the Ottoman Sultan, besides the French Russian conflict to have the privileges of the Russian orthodox churches and the catholic church in the sacred areas in Palestine, which leads to the European alliance between those mentioned armies to stop the Russian aggression. They stopped the Russian Navy in the Black Sea in 1854, and finally, the European alliance controlled the Sevastopol city in 1855 and that after a long blockade.
The causes of the war
The obvious causes of the Crimean war closely linked to religion, and that association is to protect the Holy places in Jerusalem, which can be explained by the fact that the Holy land was part of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, as it was home to Jews, Christians. Moreover, cults have tried to do the Christian control of the Holy places, but divided Christian denominations into the main Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, these two cults could not work together, where each wants to control the Holy places, and in 1690 Ottoman Sultan granted authority to the Roman Catholic Church and allowed them to control all churches in Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem, and in 1740 French-Turkish treaty concluded that Catholic monks them protect sacred places, and had to keep The safety of Christians and enable them to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but there was a large number of persons belonging to the Roman Catholics, the largest number of people was returning to the Eastern Orthodox Church, and therefore the task of protecting the Holy land was transferred to the Orthodox monks. Russia undertook to protect the Orthodox Church and then was under the rule of Tsar Nicholas I, who believed that he was playing the leader of Orthodox Church, and protector of Orthodox Christians as the implementation of the will of Allah.
There were several clashes during the period 1847-1848 between the Catholics and the Orthodox in Jerusalem, and there were conflicts between the French and the Russians on Turkish territory, and then France proposed that the control of the Holy Places is common between Catholics and Orthodox, but by the end of 1852 it dominated The French on the Holy Land, and the Russians regarded it as a great challenge to them. As the Russian Tsar saw that Turkey was slowly under foreign control, and the Russians were aiming to control the Near East and expand it under the leadership of Caesar Nicholas and with the help of Britain represented by the Prime Minister The British Aberdeen, Caesar has proposed the division of Turkey but the Prime minister of Britain did not agree with this proposal, and in 1853, Russia sent Menshikov to Constantinople, a soldier, and diplomat who led a mission to force the Sultan to make concessions to Russia; Menshikov accused officials The Ottomans with the injustice and mistreatment of Orthodox Christians, and that Turkey and Russia have to reach a formal agreement that guarantees good treatment for Orthodox Christians, by establishing a Russian Orthodox protectorate within the Ottoman territories, and the Sultan feared that this threatens his independence and began to appeal to the strong and to protect against any Russian violation in Turkey.
Menshikov realized that he had failed in the goal which sent for him and it led to his return to Saint Petersburg, and transfer to the Tsar to Russia’s policy has failed and that Britain refused the demands of Caesar, whereupon the Tsar felt ashamed and decided to know the strength of the Ottoman Sultan and the power of position of Britain in the face of abuse Russian, Russia invaded Turkey test in Moldova Turkish walashia in 1853, but Nicholas wasn’t expected Britain to be against him especially Britain and Turkey were not on good terms, as a goal to force the Turks to give Orthodox Christians guarantee to not hurt them, and did not know that the invasion of Turkey had pressure on European peace, as it might feel like Austria and Hungary are in danger of crossing the Russians of the Danube River, another result of causing anger to France and Britain is that they knew the threatened Russian expansion on Turkey, which led to the outbreak of the war.
The outbreak of the Crimean War and the revolutions
Proclaimed Austria , Britain and France war on Russia in the month of October/November in 1853, and in late November/December the Russian fleet destroyed a naval squadron in the Black Sea, Turkey and Britain’s involvement and support for Turkey behind secure trade with Turkey Access to India; by maintaining the Ottoman regime collapse, France has sought revenge against Russia because of its defeat in 1812, as France and Britain asked Russia to recede on aldanobih land, and gave up late March/April of 1854, Austria acceded to Britain and France in demanding Russia vacate the Danube, Tsar approved beginning but was fooled by the truth, forcing the Allied army to go to the Bulgarian coast and change strategies, by the month of August/September the Austrian forces established a barrier between the combatants, as the allies marched The plan was to land in Crimea, Russian naval base in Sevastopol and destroy marine fleet.
Expect the allies to take 12 weeks of war, but it took 12 months; with bloody ground battles between powerful armies and military fully equipped on 20 September/October of the year 1854 the battle of Alma used new guns given by the British And the French and won at the end, the allies were unable to attack Sevastopol, walked around to the siege, and at this time the Russians attack the army in Central Crimea, Balaklava, battles later Wankrman Anglo-French forces were able to provide Protection to Istanbul, and Baltic, Arctic, and Pacific naval forces. In 1854, the allies were able to control the Holland Castle Bomarsond in the Baltic Sea, as it destroyed the shipyard, in 1855, and from September 8-9 of 1855 force The Russians out of the city of Sevastopol, and 200,000 Russian soldiers arrested, as the British prepared to destroy Mronstadt and Saint Petersburg; through the use of armored warships and gunboats and mortar vessels.
The end of the Crimean War
Russia began to accept the defeat in the month of January/February of 1856, and sought to achieve peace, which lost about 500, 000 soldiers due to malnutrition and illness, and ruined its economy, plus they did not possess the means to modern and sophisticated weapons, on 30 March/March 1856 The peace of Paris signed a truce and this Treaty to calm Russia, unification of Germany, and kept the Ottoman rule to Turkey until 1914, this war has revealed about the power of Great Britain and demonstrated how important and powerful naval warfare in conflicts Global. And Eastern European relations has not yet settled after the war, as the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Tsar Nicholas I’s successor in the month of March/April of 1855 thought that he should eliminate ignorance and backwardness Russian to make it could compete even the powerful European States.