Turkish War of Independence
Germany and its ally the Ottoman Empire were defeated in the First World War.
The Ottoman Sultan “Mohamed V” died months before the end of the First World War, and was succeeded by his brother The Sultan “Mohammed Wahiduddin VI”.
A month after the signing of the “Modros” truce, the British, French, Italian, and then the US Navy entered the Golden Horn and brought down its forces in Astana, which turned it into a base for Allied activity throughout the region.
The Allies seized control of all the Black Sea ports and divided Turkish territory:
- The French occupied Mersin and Adana.
- The Italians occupied Antioch, Koša Dasi and Konya.
- The Greeks occupied the western part of Anatolia, in addition to Thrace.
The internal national reaction of the Armistice Agreement was negative. The Turks refused to submit to the occupation and accept its projects.
A national revolution was carried out throughout the country by the national movement led by the leader “Mustafa Kemal”. The movement was known as the “Kemalist Movement”. It faced the government’s submission to the wishes of the Allies, the cooperation of Sultan “Mohamed VI” with the occupiers, the attempts by Greece to expand the areas occupied and the Armenian revolutions.
The “Kemalist Movement” held numerous conferences throughout the country, to raise national awareness and save the country from division.
A national government headed by “Mustafa Kemal” was formed with the aim of establishing an independent Turkish state, abolishing all laws and instructions issued by the previous government, the Sultan tried to eliminate this movement, but he failed..
At that time the Treaty of Severe was imposed on the Sultan, he was forced to sign it, which ripped apart the state, while the “Kemalist” government rejected it and set out a plan to rescue Turkey in isolation from the Sultan.
After exhausting efforts and severe clashes with the Greeks, “Mustafa Kemal” was able to win, reclaiming the land they occupied and forcing the allies to sign a new truce.
In the new truce, Greece recognized the victories of Turkey, so “Mustafa Kemal” became a national hero, and emerged in the political front while the Sultan remained in the shadows.
The Ottoman Sultan “Mohammed VI” abdicated the throne and left the political life. He left the country on the back of a British battleship that took him to the island of Malta on October 17, 1922.
Crown Prince Sultan “Abdul Majid II” ascended the throne of the Ottoman Empire, after the abdication of Sultan “Mohamed VI”.
After “Mustafa Kemal” became the master of the situation, he signed the Treaty of Lausanne with the Allies, under which he relinquished the rest of the non-Turkish Ottoman lands.
“Mustafa Kemal” Ataturk stripped the fact authority from the Sultan and made him merely a Khalifa, more like to be the Sheikh of Islam, but without spiritual authority as well.
“Mustafa Kemal Ataturk” abolished the Caliphate in 1924 and expelled The Ottoman Sultan “Abdul Majid II” from the country. Thus, the Ottoman Empire fell after nearly 600 years, and the Islamic Caliphate collapsed with it after more than a thousand years.