Treaty of “Versailles”
The Treaty of “Versailles” ended World War I
The Treaty of “Versailles” was the treaty that ended the World War I, and was partly responsible for the beginning of the World War II. The Treaty of “Versailles” was signed on June 28, 1919, in the “Hall of Mirrors” at the “Versailles Palace” in “Paris”. It was a peaceful settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers that formally ended the World War I, the terms of the treaty are very punitive to Germany, so many believe that the Treaty of “Versailles” laid the foundation for the outbreak of World War II.
Discussing the Treaty of “Versailles” at the “Paris Peace Conference”:
- On January 18, 1919, more than two months after the fighting ended on the western front of the World War I, the “Paris Peace Conference” opened and began with five months of discussions surrounding the Treaty of “Versailles”.
- Despite the participation of many diplomats from the Allies, the Big Three (Prime Minister “David Lioyd George” of the UK, Prime Minister “Georges Clemenceau” of France and President “Woodrow Wilson” of the USA) were the most influential, and Germany was not invited.
- On May 7, 1919, the Treaty of “Versailles” was handed over to Germany, who were told that they had only three weeks to accept the treaty, and since the Treaty of “Versailles” was aimed at punishing Germany in many ways, Germany found a great mistake in the Treaty of “Versailles”, so Germany sent a list of complaints about the treaty, but most of the allied forces ignored it.
Treaty of “Versailles”: (a very long document)
The Treaty of “Versailles” is a very long and comprehensive document, consisting of 440 articles (in addition to annexes), divided into 15 parts. The first part of the Treaty of “Versailles” created the “League of Nations”. Other parts included conditions of military restrictions, prisoners of war, Waterways, and compensation.
Treaty of “Versailles” and Spark’s dialectical terms:
- The most controversial aspect of the Treaty of “Versailles” was that Germany bore full responsibility for the damage caused by World War I (known as the war wolf article 231). Specifically, the item included:
- Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and its allies for causing all the losses and damage suffered by allies and associated governments and their citizens as a result of the war imposed on them by the aggression of Germany and its allies.
- Other controversial sections included the main privileges of land imposed on Germany (including all its colonies), the army’s limit of 100 thousand men, and the very large amount of compensation paid by Germany to the Allied countries.
- The anger was also expressed in Article 227 of Part VII, which stipulated that the Allies intended to direct the supreme crime against international morality and the inviolability of treaties to the German Emperor “Wilhelm II”, to be tried by a court of five judges.
- The terms of the Treaty of “Versailles” appeared to be hostile to Germany, and German Chancellor “Philippe Schademman” resigned rather than signing it, but Germany realized that it had to sign it because they had no military strength and left the resistance.
Treaty of “Versailles” Signature:
On June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke “Franz Ferdinand”, Germany’s “Hermann Mueller” and “Johannes Bell” signed the Treaty of “Versailles” in the “Hall of Mirrors” at the “Versailles Palace” near Paris in France.
Overview of the Treaty of “Versailles”:
The Treaty of “Versailles” was signed on June 28, 1919, as the end of World War I. It was signed after six months of negotiations that began after the “Paris Peace Conference” of 1919. The victorious Allies in World War I signed separate agreements with the losing central powers in the war: German, Austrian, Hungarian, Ottoman, and Bulgarian states. On January 10, 1920, it was amended to include the German recognition of its responsibility for the war. Germany was obliged to compensate the financially affected parties. It was called the Treaty of “Versailles” in relation to the place of signing of the treaty, the French palace, “Versailles”. The treaty resulted in the founding of the League of Nations to prevent another war. The treaty led to Germany losing some of its territory and colonies to other parties. The treaty established controls and restrictions on the German military machine so that the Germans would not ignite a second war such as World War I, It was supposed to guarantee a lasting peace, In contrast, this leaves a legacy of political and geographic difficulties that are often blamed at some point only for the start of World War II.