Thirty Years World
Was a war between 1618 and 1648, which took place in the territory of Germany because of a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants, but the main engine of the sedition of this war was the rivalry between the Hapsburg family and other central powers in Europe over the rule of European countries, as well as the view of some in Catholic France, Where they supported the Protestant side in the war against it, and it should be noted that there are many European powers that have intervened in this war, and in this article we will inform you of it.
The situation in Europe before the war
The Treaty of Peace of Oxpork was signed in 1555, confirming the outcome of the first Sheer meeting, ending the violence between Lutherans and Catholics in Germany, as well as some provisions of peace:
- German princes have the right to choose the religion they want to follow in their emirate according to their wishes.
- Every Lutheran has the right to remain Lutheran in any area under the rule of a bishop.
- Lutheran has the right to retain the land that they have taken from the Catholic Church since the signing of the Treaty in 1552.
- Every Catholic bishop who ruled an area, which was converted to Lutheranism, he has the right to return it to Catholicism.
The Bohemian Revolution
The Roman emperor had no grandchildren or sons, so he wanted to make sure that the king passed on to his heir, the legitimate Ferdinand Sestrioy, a fanatic Catholic. He later took over the Roman Empire, so Matias appointed him as his governor for Hungary and Bohemia, that made the territory of Hungary and Bohemia afraid of losing their religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolph II. When the king’s candidate sent two representatives to the Haradashani fortress in Prak for the rule of Bohemia in his absence, a group of Calvinists arrested them, making a mock trial, then they were thrown out of the window of the castle, which is 50 feet above the surface of the earth, but they did not die, just causing severe injuries, which led to the outbreak of Bohemian revolution in Prague, which led to the outbreak of many revolutions throughout Bohemia, Lusatia, Silesia and Moravia. Then civil war spread in many parts of Western Europe, which weakened Ferdinand Matthias’s successor and the rebellious Bohemians, and led to the spread of the war to western Germany.
The results of the Bohemian defeat
The defeat of the Bohemians in the Battle of the White Mountain led to the dissolution of the Protestant League and the loss of Frederick V to his property which was granted to Catholic nobles. The title of Platinum Governor was taken to his distant cousin Maximilian Duke of Bavaria. Frederick tried to establish relations with Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, Gabriel Bethlen from Transylvania signed with Roman Emperor the Treaty of Nicole Zbek on December 31, 1621, the Protestant forces remained under the leadership of Mansfield, and Christian from Brunswick, who were heading towards the Netherlands, and helped to break the siege of Bergen-Ob-Zum, but the Dutch could not keep them in their land for fear of losing them, and their pursuit of them, so they gave the two leaders money. They were sent to occupy the land adjacent to Netherlands to become under their ownership, Mansfield went to this land and remained there, while Christian went to Lower Saxony to help his relative who asked for his help, but the members of Christian army feared that they would incursion into German territory, and returned to Netherlands.
Battle of Stadtlohn
General Tali’s forces confronted the Christian forces in a battle known as Battle of Stadtlohn on August 6, 1623, which resulted in the defeat of a pretext that led to the killing of four-fifths of the army. After hearing this news, Frederick forced his brother-in-law and his host in exile to abandon attempts to return to Bohemia and Platen, thus the first period of the Thirty Years War ended with the defeat of Christian, the stability of Mansfield, and Frederick V’s retreat from thinking of a return. Peace and quiet prevailed over the Roman Empire, but the Danish intervention began in 1625.
The Danish intervention began when Christian V king of Denmark, sent an army to fight the Roman Empire in support of the Lutherans in northern Germany. He was appointed to be in charge of his army in Lower Saxony, where his troops increased to 20,000. In addition, his influence increased in northern Germany, Which prompted the Holy Roman Empire to think of putting an end to the Danish and preventing their incursions into the territory of Europe. Ferdinand II requested military assistance from a Bohemian nobleman, Albert von Wallenstein, and agreed to help him on the condition that the newly occupied territories to be granted to him.
The forces of the Wallstein went with General Tali’s forced to confront the forces of Christian King of Denmark, which forced him to retreat. In 1626, the Battle of the Dessau Bridge took place between the forces of Wallenstein and the Protestant forces of Mansfield. Wallstein defeated the Protestant forces of Mansfield, losing more than half of his troops, and after few months he died. The forces of General Tilly defeated the Danish in the Battle of Luther in 1626, and then the forces of the Wallstein moved north towards the areas of the Danish, and occupied Mecklenburg and Pomerania, until it reached the Danish peninsula and took control, and then Wallstein went to the German coast overlooking the Baltic, where the city of Stralsund in the far north-east of Germany, Which led the parties of the conflict to reach the Treaty of Lubac in 1629, which provided for the return of King Christian V of the Danish territory in exchange for giving up the support of Protestants in the German territory, in addition to stop interfering in the affairs of those territories, in a result the influence of Catholics increased in northern Germany.
In 1630, the king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, decided to intervene in the war, and ordered his soldiers to prepare for action. Then he landed on the North German coast to save the Protestants. To be noticed he was stronger than the Danish king. He sought to control the Hanseatic Association and to transform the Baltic into a Swedish lake. He was able to assemble his army despite the poverty of his country, and then the force became in the hands of Gustav Adolf, who changed the course of the war, Where he launched a campaign against the city of Magdeburg when conquered by the empires, it was burned and looted, and later Gustav won the Battle of Breitenfeld on September 17, 1631, and at the battle of Lutzen, 16 November 1632, Where he died by a bullet from the back, then the negotiations began between them, prompting the Spanish to intervene, with the aim of unifying Germany.
Spain intervened between 1635 and 1645, by striking the Protestants and defeating them at the battle of Nordlingen on September 5, 1634. After the death of Wallenstein and Gustav Adolf, Sweden became a force in Germany by its generals after Christina, Gustav’s daughter took power after her father’s death at age of six. They won in 1642 in the battle of Leipzig II, then Bohemia and Austria threatened the rule of Habsburg’s family.
The victories became more Swedish than Protestant, which caused the fear of Christian IV King of Denmark from Sweden. So he declared a war against them, but he was defeated, and his lands were invaded again, from which Jammland, Halland and the islands of Essel near Estonia and Gotland were conquered. which made Denmark abandon the war. Then France decided to intervene, the France forces crossed the Rhine to participate in the conflict, and clashed with the Spanish armies in Rokroa in 1643, and then a clash between the empires and Protestants in the Battle of Yankov in Bohemia on March 5, 1645, where the victory was for the Protestants, and then a peace agreement declared between Denmark and Sweden, In 1645 and was called the Treaty of Brompresso, then Christine King of Denmark died after three years of it,In the same year, the Westphalia Peace was declared, and thus the war ended with the defeat of Habsburgs and the victory of the Swedes and the French.