The invasion of Normandy and the fall of Hitler
World War II witnessed a number of major battles, the most powerful battles, the battle of “Normandy” for the quantity of equipment and gear, in addition to the big trick that the Germans have won, and the number of victims was above description.
It was the battle that disappointed Hitler’s hopes of controlling the Allies and conquering the world.
It is considered the largest operation by air, land, and sea, and the beginning of the invasion that hurried the end of Nazi Germany.
The invasion was called two names: the name of the place “Normandy” and the name operation “Overlord”.
Before the Invasion
December 7: US President Franklin Roosevelt calls on General Dwight Eisenhower to inform him that the choice was made to be the supreme commander of the Allied forces and the goal is to invade France, and the beginning was set on the first day of May 1944.
December 12: General Erwin Rommel was assigned by Hitler to the German defense of the Atlantic coast from Norway to Spain. Rommel arrived in France to take a look at the coast in preparation for any possible invasion.
What is the day?, And the hour?
The Americans put the term D-Day and H-Hour to determine the day and hour of the Normandy coast invasion, although they had not yet identified it.
Although the day of the invasion was initially set for the fifth day of June, the invasion actually began on the sixth day of June 1944.
The Beginning of the Invasion
The first day, and that was precisely on Tuesday, June 6, 1944.
The clash between Allied forces and German forces began that day and beyond in the Normandy coast.
Allied troops were composed of French, British, and American forces. In the following weeks, the Polish and Belgian forces joined in addition to the Czech, Greek, and Dutch forces, most of these troops provided air and sea support. Australian and New Zealand troops also provided air forces, Norwegian troops provided naval support.
The First Beginnings
The Battle of Normandy began with night parachuting and heavy air strikes, in addition to the naval assault.
The following morning, the sea landing began on five coasts: Juno, Gold, Omaha, Utah, and Sourd. At that evening, the rest of the parachute units were unloaded, while Allied ground forces were launched from the British south coast.
The Allied forces had been preparing for the invasion since the 28th of April 1944, and a month before the invasion, the Allies wanted to fool the German forces by the time and place of the invasion.
It was thought that the decision to attack must be a day before the full moon was born and to take advantage of the “spring tide”. Eisenhower had chosen the fifth day of June to begin the invasion.
With bad weather, the Germans decided that an invasion would not be possible in such an atmosphere, and it would take a few days.
Some German leaders were encouraged to take the weekend, and even General Rommel took a few days off, and a large number of commanders had left their positions.
It began on June 6 and ended on the 30th of the same month.
In this period, the Allies established a foothold in Normandy. The invasion began and continued until the Allies managed to cross the Seine on 19 August 1944.
The main forces were landed on June 6, and the number of troops on the Normandy coast was about 130,000, half of them from Americans and the rest from the Commonwealth.
Number and Gears
On June 11, the troops and equipment that were brought down in Normandy were as follows:
- 326,547 soldiers.
- 54,186 vehicles.
- 104,428 tons of supplies.
On June 30, “Day 24” there was approximately 85,000 fighters, 148 vehicles, and 570,000 tons of supplies.
On 4 July, the number of fighters who had landed in Normandy had reached one million.
The number of vehicles was 6939, 1213 vessels, 4126 transport vehicles, landing vessels, 736 Ancillary Craft ships and 864 Merchant Vessels.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Protection and Fire Forces on the coast was Admiral Sir “Bertram Ramzi”.
The naval expeditionary forces were divided into two naval forces, led by Admiral “Allan Kirl” from the west, and Admiral Sir “Philip Mian” from the east.
The warships provided cover for transport against the enemy, whether from submarines or warships or by aerial attack, which gave support to the invasion.
The German Forces
The number of German military forces reached its peak in 1944 from tanks on the eastern side reached 5202 in November 1944.
The Air Force reached 5,041 aircraft in December 1944.
At the beginning of the invasion, there were 157 German brigades in the Soviet Union, 6 in Finland, 12 in Norway, 6 in Denmark, 9 in Germany, 21 in the Balkans, 26 in Italy and 59 in France, Belgium and the Netherlands.
The invasion of Normandy and the end of Hitler
The Normandy invasion of June 6, 1944, is one of the greatest military battles in history.
This invasion is still being studied in military colleges and universities in the world.
Its goal was to establish a bridgehead for Allies in occupied France during the World War II, as a launching pad for the liberation of Nazi-occupied countries in Europe, then the occupation of Germany itself, and the overthrow of the Nazi regime.
If the invasion failed to achieve its objectives, the political map in Europe was often different from what it is now, or the World War II continued for a long time, and millions and millions more were lost, but this invasion and its aftermath paved the way for establishing a postwar regime.
The Allies continued their invasion. By the end of June, the number of German victims had reached 250,000, according to the Rommel report, while a number of Allied allies had reached the Normandy coast of 850,000 men and 150,000 vehicles.
On 9 July, the British finally managed to occupy Kane and the Americans left Normandy on July 25 and were followed by the rest of the coalition forces.
Liberation of Paris
On August 8, the Allies liberated Paris.
Paris was the second capital of the Axis Powers (Germany – Japan – Italy) after Berlin and the Allies continued their march through the low-lying lands.
On May 22, 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies.
The story of deceiving the Germans
Time: World War II – Pre-landing Normandy
Location: London – Meeting of Allied intelligence chiefs led by General Morgan.
Operation: Fortitude, meaning stability.
Plans: The Allies agreed on a wide range of complex deception plans aimed at making the Normandy process a success and freeing Europe from Nazism by distracting the Germans’ attention and efforts by keeping their troops away from Normandy.
With the Implication that the Allies were planning to invade Norway and Scandinavia, and from the south, it was suggested that the invasion would be the Straits of Dover Calais.
The Implication of a number of operations that could start from: Smit, Grafham, Cooperhead, camouflaged towards Gibraltar and Algeria, and an unknown land field personality would be a substitute for General Montgomery.
The plan was, in its entirety, the largest and most important planning work that shocked the Germans. The deceiving was sharpened by placing hundreds of tridimensional aircraft and fighter jets structures, and lighting works as air defense, and loudspeakers that conveyed the sounds of vehicles and aircraft to suggest that a full army would invade.
As a result, the Germans concentrated their forces, especially most of the German 15th Army units in the north of the Seine until the day the Allies landed their forces in Normandy.
German pilots were deceived by placing 7 million tons of structural equipment in the tricky places, and the area was vaccinated with soldiers in a state of constant movement with a few armored vehicles.
The Allies tamed electronic means to suggest that there are two fleets, and the use of eighteen launchers equipped with developed balloons with reflectors giving misleading reflections to German radars, as well as 28 boats carrying 14 booths for jamming German aircraft.
Quick Silver Plan
The allies put another plan, was to create a fictional airdrop zone, where more than fifty bombers used balloons, and threw huge numbers of human-sized human dolls suspended by landing parachutes.
It was implying of a whole squad of Special Forces, and the Americans had done another trick in those dolls, by putting instruments on dolls heads, to emit a sound of men’s shouts and bullets and the sounds of feet running.
The Germans began directing a large force of aircraft and bombers to bomb the area and during the Germans’ preoccupation with the liquidation of the imaginary gap, the Allied Command had successfully completed the real landing around Normandy.