The Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, who ruled Germany between 1933 and 1945, believed that the Jews were the cause of Germany’s defeat in the First World War, therefore he decided to dispose of them when he ruled Germany in the context of World War II, which he set in 1939.
The world celebrates the Holocaust memory by angry marches or visiting death camps, where Hitler disposed 6 million Jews in various ways, most notably the gas chambers.
In the context of these celebrations, the American website “About” mentioned 33 unknown facts about the massacres of the Holocaust.
- The Holocaust began in 1933 when Adolf Hitler took over Germany and ended in 1945 when he was defeated by allied forces.
Meaning of the Holocaust
- The word “Holocaust” is a Greek word, its origin is “Holocaust on”, meaning “sacrifice by fire”. The word was used to refer to the massacres carried out by the Nazi regime against the Jews, who use the word “Shoah”, meaning destruction, in a reference to that massacre.
- It also targeted the salvation from gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and the disabled. His opponents had one of two fates, either forced labor or murder.
- The word “Nazi” is the abbreviation of the “National Socialist German Workers Party”.
- The Nazis used the term “final solution” in referring to their plan to kill and redeem Jews.
- On April 1, 1933, the Nazis began the first persecution of German Jewry by announcing the boycott of German companies run by Jews.
- On September 15, 1935, “Nuremberg Laws” was enacted, which exclude Jews from public life. It included a law that stripped German Jews of the right to citizenship, and another law prohibiting the marriage from German Jews, Sexual relations with them. The Nuremberg legislation was the first legislative step taken by the Nazi government, paving the way for a series of subsequent anti-Jewish legislative packages.
- During the following years, the Ruling Nazi Party enacted a new set of laws, some of which prohibited Jews from entering gardens and public parks, provided for their dismissal from government jobs in the state, and forced them to register their property and prevent Jewish doctors from examining any non-Jewish patient.
- During the night of November 9-10, 1938, the Nazis carried out a program of violence against the Jews in Austria and Germany, in what was called “Crystal Night” or “Night of Broken Glass.” This night witnessed acts of violence, including looting, burning of Jewish synagogues, smashing the glass facades of shops owned by Jews, and seizes what was inside, the assault on many Jews, and the arrest of about 30,000 others, and sent them to the concentration camps.
- After the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the Nazis ordered German citizens to wear the yellow Star of David, so that they could be distinguished from the target Jews.
The Jewish Neighborhood (The Ghetto)
- With the outbreak of the Second World War, The Nazi Party assigned Jews specific places and cities to live in, and called it the “Ghetto” or the Jewish Neighborhood.
- Jews were forced to leave their homes and move to small apartments in the Jewish neighborhoods allotted to them by the government, many of whom lived in one apartment with other families.
- In the beginning, the gates of some of the Jewish neighborhoods were open, so that the Jews could leave them at any time of the day and go anywhere, provided they returned at a specific time when the bell rang, but then the Nazi government ordered the closure of all its gates. Which meant that the Jews had to stay inside these neighborhoods in an atmosphere of siege, which prevented them from leaving the neighborhood?
- A very limited number of Jewish neighborhoods existed in the major cities of Bialystok, Kovno, Lodz, Minsk, Riga, Vilna and Warsaw.
- The largest “ghetto” of the Jews was in Warsaw, which had the largest number of Jews, numbering 445 thousand Jews in March 1941.
- The Nazi government ordered the formation of a “Jewish Council” in every “ghetto”, where the Council was concerned with two orders: first, the implementation of Nazi orders, the organization of internal affairs and the management of daily life in the neighborhood.
- The Nazi government then evacuated the Jewish neighborhoods from its inhabitants, through a series of deportation campaigns, and even some of the large Jewish neighborhoods were a daily departure of 1,000 Jews, who were loaded into trains that took them either to concentration camps or death camps.
- In order to deceive the Jews and encourage them to cooperate in the plan, the Nazi government told them that these trains would take them to other areas to work there.
- When the Nazi government decided to kill the rest of the Jews in the rest of the Jewish neighborhoods, they “liquidated” those neighborhoods and shipped them on the same trains that took the other jews on their final journey to the death camps.
- When the Nazi government tried to liquidate the “ghetto” in Warsaw on April 13, 1943, the remaining Jews in the ghetto objected, and they fought the government in what was known as the “Warsaw ghetto uprising.” The clashes between the Jews and the Nazi government continued for 28 days.
Detention Camps and other for Extermination
- Although many use the term “Detention Camps” to refer to camps set up by Hitler for the salvation of the Jews, but actually there are several camps, including “Detention Camps”; there are “Extermination Camps”, “Labor Camps”, ” Prisoners of War Camps”and” Transit Camps “.
- “Dachau Camp” is one of the first camps established by the Nazi government, which opened on March 20, 1933.
- During the period (1933-1938), the vast majority of prisoners in the detention camps were Hitler’s political opponents (ie, those who spoke against Hitler or acted against his rule) or whom Hitler typed them as “selfish” .
- After 1938, specifically after “Crystal Nights”, the persecution of the German Jewry became systematic, leading to an excessive increase in the number of prisoners in the “Detention Camps”.
- Life in the “Detention Camps” was appalling. Where the detainees were forced to do arduous work for very small shares of food. Two or three people could sleep on one bed without bedding or pillows. Torture crimes increased and death rates increased.
- In some “Detention Camps”, doctors loyal to Nazi rule were conducting medical experiments on the detainees against their will.
- The main purpose of the “Detention Camps” was to exhaust the prisoners with hard labor and to starve them to death, while the “Extermination Camps” were set up specifically to kill the largest number of those in the camps at the quickest possible pace.
- The Nazis created six “Extermination Camps”, which are: Belzek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz, and Majdanek, and the latter were both “Detention Camps” and “Extermination Camps”.
- When prisoners were transferred from “Detention Camps” to “Extermination Camps”, they were ordered to take off their clothes for bathing, and then the jailer put them in the gas chambers where they were killed. At “Kilmno Camp”, the prisoners were assembled in gas trucks, not in rooms.
- “Auschwitz” is the largest detention and extermination camp established by Hitler, estimated to have killed 1.1 million people.
The Holocaust in Numbers
- The number of victims of the Holocaust is estimated at 11 million, including 6 million Jews.
- The Nazis killed about two thirds of the Jews living in Europe.
- About 1.1 million child died in the Holocaust.