The civilisation of Mesopotamia
Civilization in language means residence in urban areas, opposite of rural area,, as it’s a stage in human development. And civilization in terminology is a collection which expresses a certain culture, society and nation, and this nation through civilization to protect their culture, and pass it on to future generations, may constitute many other civilizations around the world as the ancient Egyptian civilization and Chinese civilization, Greek and Islamic civilization and in this article, we will talk about one of these civilizations which is Mesopotamia civilization:
The civilization of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamian civilization, one of the ancient civilizations in the Near East. This civilization was marked by when the Tigris and Euphrates rivers which have played a major role in the appearance of this civilization. These two rivers helped to stabilize people and their civilization’s ascent. Mesopotamian civilization is the oldest civilization in human history, these effects were evident in every civilization such as Akad, Babylon, and Assyria. Many kingdoms ruled the land of Mesopotamia, including:
Kingdom of the Sumerians
Kingdom of the Sumerians was one of the kingdoms of Iraq and established the Kingdom of great civilization known as the slave civilization, stretched this Kingdom’s territory until they reached Bahrain (Dilmun Island out). Sumerians civilization is the oldest civilization in the world. Sumer ruling period has divided into three periods of follows:
- Age of dawn first dynasties (2800-2700 BC).
- Age of dawn breeds II (2700-2600 BC).
- Dawn era third dynasties (2600-2400 BC).
The Sumerian civilization has had many achievements in various fields, especially in architecture because they have been in building palaces and temples in ancient Sumerian era cellars decades appeared for the first time, as marked in sculpture as well as mining, foundry, and Sumerians have been credited a way to smelting Gold in 2500 BC. The language of the Sumerians is the conjoined languages. Agglutinative.
Kingdom of Acadian
Acadians are people displaced from their original homeland (the Arabian Peninsula) to Mesopotamia (Iraq) in the early 2000s or a little earlier, and the Acadians are believed to have lived at the same time with the Sumerians. The Acadian state was carried out by Sargon Acadi (2371-2316 BC), which consolidated Iraq into one kingdom, and the reign of Sargon Acadi lasted for 55 years, during which he carried out many reforms in the army (development of weapons and methods of warfare) as well as reforms in the system of government, as developed in the reign of art and architecture.
And the Kings of the State of Naram Ceen Acadian stronger Kings of all Acadians, had lasted for nearly forty years, and remembered lots of stories and legends that Naram Ceen was the Supreme Ruler, naramseen is the first King in Mesopotamia idolizes himself, has been named Naram-Ceen upon himself the title King of Kings quarters, and reached its peak during the Acadian Kingdom she began to fall after the death of Naram-Ceen.
Kingdom of the Babylonians
In Mesopotamia, a powerful kingdom appeared, the Babylonian kingdom, and this one has been divided into three eras for every age and its civilizational features.
These ages are:
Old Babylonian age: at the beginning of the second millennium BC Babylonian State arose at the hands of a family known as the first dynasty of Babylon (2894-1595 BC), Hammurabi is one of the most famous Kings of this era (1728-1686 BC) the bounty is unifying the country, the most important work of Hammurabi age Its uniform laws apply to all of Mesopotamia (Hammurabi), the world’s first integrated law involving criminal law and civil law in addition to personal, old Babylonian was marked by the evolution of Sciences and human knowledge add to the breadth and the increasing number of Cities.
The middle the Babylonian age: in late ancient Babylonian attack on Iraq “came from the North-East or from the East, known as Assyria kingdom, founded this nation State ruled almost five centuries and is believed to have turned into Babylonians, the little King (agum-kakrim ) As the first King of them, who restored the statue of the God Marduk after he defeated the Hittites. The median age of Babylonian is atrophy and slipped to Babylonian civilization, despite political judgment in Babylon but remained under the control of stronger powers, was the Kingdom of Mitanni that flourished and collapsed after the appearance of Assyria, Babylon has become under the control of the Assyrians during the reign of King Assyrian ninorta.
The modern Babylonian age: longer reign of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II of thriving periods in human history in General, and the recovery period of the Babylonian civilization particularly, Nebuchadnezzar II had built the most important monuments built in Ziggurat, besides building many temples in the city of Babylon, and establish a street procession, Ishtar Gate, as well as gardens which is one of the seven wonders of the world.
In 597 BC Jerusalem (Jerusalem) under the control of the Babylonians, deported the Jews to Babylon in 587 BC and is known as the Babylonian captivity of the Jews, and in 539 BC Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon, and despite her fall but remained in conflict with governance have appeared. Many revolutions, such as the revolution of Nebuchadnezzar III in 522 BC, the revolution of 521 b.c. led by Nebuchadnezzar IV, revolt in 484 led by Bill airiba wesamsa simani and other revolutions.
Assyrian Kingdom appeared in northern part of Iraq, Assyrians they migrated from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in Iraq, their name was derived from the name of their God of Assyria, Assyrian Kingdom was marked by many great kings of them:
Shalmaneser I and is one of the greatest Kings of Assyria, and has had great achievements in various fields, notably the outward expansion of the State.
Sargon II: discriminate foreign conquests in custody, where he spent the Jewish Kingdom in Samaria, he built near capital Nineveh was named sharokin role.
Ashur banibal: most King love for literature and science and knowledge has to build a home for books where the collection of different types of knowledge and science of civilization in Iraq.
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