The Chinese Revolution 1949 – Part One
For the Marxists, the Chinese Revolution was the second greatest event in human history after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. Where millions of people, who until then had been slaves of imperialism, managed to bring down the yoke of humiliating imperialist and capitalist exploitation and entered the stage of world history.
The first Chinese revolution of 1925-1927 was a true proletarian revolution. But it was aborted by Stalin and Bukharin’s erroneous policies, which had entrenched the Chinese working class with the so-called democratic bourgeoisie under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. The Communist Party was dissolved in the bourgeois Kuomintang (KMT), but Stalin invited Zhang Kai-shek to become a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International.
This disastrous policy led to a terrible defeat in 1927 when the “democratic bourgeoisie” Zhang Kai-shek organized a massacre against the communists in Shanghai. The crushing of the Chinese working class was specific to the nature of the next Chinese revolution.
The root of the bourgeoisie
The national bourgeois father Zhang Kai-shek, who seized power in 1927 on the bodies of Shanghai workers, spent two decades showing what he could accomplish In the end, however, China continued to be an imperialist country as in the past. The agricultural issue remained unresolved. The Chinese bourgeoisie, along with all other royal classes, was linked to imperialism and constituted a reactionary bloc hostile to change. August 9, 1945, Soviet forces launched an impressive strategic offensive on Manchuria, to hit Japanese troops there and along the Chinese-Mongolian border. In a spectacular campaign, Soviet troops crushed the Japanese army and seized Manchuria. The 700,000 Japanese troops in the area surrendered and the Red Army took Manchukuo and Mingling (Inner Mongolia), North Korea, South Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands
Stalin and the Chinese Revolution
What was Moscow’s position on all this? Initially, the PLA Red Army allowed its positions in Manchuria to be strengthened. But by November 1945 he changed his mind. Chiang Kai-shek and the American imperialists were terrified that the communists might take over Manchuria after the Soviets withdrew. Zhang then signed an agreement with Moscow to postpone its withdrawal until it could move its best-trained troops and more modern equipment into the region. The Kuomintang forces then flew by air to the area. The Russians allowed them to occupy major cities in northern China, while the countryside remained under the control of the Communist Party of China. “While the war was continuing, Mao Zedong demanded that the Patriots agree to form a coalition government instead of their one-party government, and Stalin and Molotov’s claim that the two Chinese parties should unite together, and on August 14, 1945, the Soviet Union took a step further. At the time Stalin told the Chinese Communists that their rebellion had “no meaning” and that they should join the government of Zhang and replaces their army.
If Stalin and Mao, according to the Leninist program, had to immediately put forward the slogan of forming a socialist federation of the Soviet Union and China, which would have provided great services to all peoples. Instead, their relations were based on narrow national interests and dishonest calculations. This ultimately led to the terrible situation in which the Russian and Chinese “comrades” exchanged a “dialogue” in the language of missiles and artillery shells on the problem of arbitrary borders, drawn in the 19th century by the Russian tsar and the Chinese emperor.
US help Zhang Kai-chek
The Americans were therefore ambitious to make China, after the war, an area of influence (that is, making it semi-colony). But after all the torments of the Second World War, the American people are no longer willing to take another war for the enslavement of China.
Although American imperialism was unable to intervene in the Chinese Civil War, 1946-1949, it provided enormous sums of money, arms, and supplies to patriots. The United States has supported the Kuomintang forces with new military aid worth hundreds of millions of dollars. But all those weapons sent by Washington were used by the Vietnamese forces later against the US military since almost all of these weapons were captured by Mao’s forces.
In July 1946, with the active support of American imperialism, the Kuomintang sank China into a terrible civil war, with unprecedented savagery. Chiang Kai-shek launched an anti-revolutionary offensive against the People’s Liberation Army. He had attended it carefully, and at that time he had had about three and a half times the forces of the PLA; the equipment was far superior. He had sophisticated industries and modern means of communication, while the PLA lacked all of that. In theory, he was supposed to make an easy victory. “In 1945, the number of forces under the command of the Eighth Army and the new Fourth Army rose from a total of about half a million to about one million, and the Kuomintang was about four times that number. In mid-1947, after a year of extensive civil war Scale, the ratio moved from one to four, to one to two. (Stuart Schram, Mao Tse-tung, p.242.)
The last attack
Clausewitz has a famous saying that war is a continuation of politics by other means. Politics plays a very important role in all wars, but this is more true for civil wars. Although the Americans (as always) continued to claim that this was a war between “communism and democracy,” their Chinese puppet, Chiang Kai-shek, was, in fact, a brutal dictator. Yet, under pressure from Washington, he may have introduced a number of “democratic reforms” to silence his critics at home and abroad.
Announced a new constitution and held a national assembly, the most extreme of which was the Communists, of course. But Mao immediately condemned these “reforms” as a play. The vast masses were more interested in the rampant corruption of government and political and economic chaos and were particularly interested in the massive inflation that led to the collapse of living standards. There were also student demonstrations across the country against American imperialism.
In the areas controlled by the national forces, a system of white terrorism prevailed. Zhang applied the same tactics that Japanese invaders used in the past: burning, looting, rape, and murder. Where millions of men, women, young people and the elderly were massacred This has earned him the resentment of the population and the support of the People’s Liberation Army.
Theoretically, the nationalists still had a great advantage over the PLA. On paper, they were clearly superior both to men and to weapons. They controlled larger areas and a larger population than their enemies and enjoyed considerable international support from the United States and Western Europe. But this was only theoretical. The truth on the ground was very different. The patriotic forces suffered from a lack of morale and rampant corruption that dramatically reduced their ability to fight and their base of support among civilians had disappeared. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was able to move to counter-attack, forcing the Kuomintang to abandon its plan of mass attack. After capturing large numbers of enemy soldiers, it improved its military capabilities, formed its own artillery forces, and had a squad of engineers. Fortified. Before that, the People’s Liberation Army had neither planes nor tanks, but as soon as better artillery and engineering teams formed than the KMT possessed, it was able not only to wage a mobile war but also a localized war. According to Mao’s own estimates, The transformation of the military situation was truly incredible. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which for a few years had been lost in comparison with the Kuomintang forces, finally succeeded, between July and December 1948, to gain numerical superiority over the Kuomintang. These are the numbers that Mao gave at the time: “During the first year, 97 brigades were eliminated, including 46 brigades completely obliterated; in the second year, 94 brigades were eliminated, including 50 brigades completely obliterated; during the first half of the third year, according to incomplete figures, A total of 147 battalions, including 111 battalions, were completely wiped out, and during the six months the number of enemy battalions was completely wiped out 15 times more than the previous two years. And those in northern China will soon be completely wiped out. In East China and the Central Plains, the enemy has only a few L of the soldiers. The annihilation of the main Kuomintang forces in the north of the Yangtze River, Greatly facilitated the next crossing of the People’s Liberation Army and its southern campaign to liberate all of China In conjunction with a victory on the military front, the Chinese people have achieved tremendous victories on the political and economic fronts. That is why public opinion all over the world, including all imperialist press, no longer stands to prevail in the victory of the Chinese People’s Liberation War. “(Carry the Revolution through to the end, December 30, 1948, Mao, SW, volume IV, p. 299)
There is no reason to question these estimates. All bourgeois historians accept that during this phase, Chang’s forces were disorganized and the People’s Liberation Army forces were growing rapidly.