The causes of the Soviet Union fall


The causes of the Soviet Union fall

The collapse of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union officially fell on December 26, 1991. When people throughout Eastern communist Europe heard that the Russians would not do anything to quell the opposition, they began challenging their regimes and working to develop the multilateral systems in their countries. Communist regimes in Eastern Europe began to collapse one after the other, beginning in Hungary and Poland in 1989, rapidly spread to Czechoslovakia, Romania and Bulgaria, and the demonstrations throughout East Germany, which led eventually to allow citizens to move to the West again, and reunited Germany shortly thereafter in 1990. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 was considered the end of the Cold War and the end of communism in Europe.

Factors of the Soviet Union fall

Bad conditions in Berlin

The bad situation in Berlin was one of the factors that led to the fall of the Soviet Union. The struggle to lead the Soviet Union began after the death of Joseph Stalin. Eventually, Khrushchev took over, his era witnessed instability and the intensification of the uprisings, Which were soon suppressed in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany saw the most insidious uprisings, the East Berlin workers fought a general strike in 1953, as a result of the situation of the country. The strike quickly spread to the rest of the country, and the Soviet and Eastern German military forces faced the strike and said that any opposition to the communist rule would be dealt with violently. Nevertheless, unrest continued to spread throughout Eastern Europe.

Gorbachev Reforms

The reforms of Gorbachev (the last leader of the Soviet Union) were among the factors leading to the acceleration of the fall of the Soviet Union. These reforms changed the laws and regulations used by the people. The changes also affected economic and political elites, so the Soviet rule ended in 1991.

Corruption of the Politburo

The corruption of the Soviet Politburo was one of the causes of its fall. The Soviet Union in the 1920s, led by Vladimir Lenin, Leon Truski and Joseph Stalin, had many drawbacks and flaws in their leadership but were driven by the ideological purity associated with Marxism.

Since 1963, the Politburo began to deviate from Lenin’s policies with a somewhat conservative approach, as the 1960s and 1970s saw the wealth of the party’s elite increase, they owned imported German cars, slept on Italian luxury silk, and ate the finest French food, while millions of people die from hunger, and thus the corruption of the government created a violent reaction by the younger generation, who rejected the corrupt ideology of the party that their parents had accepted and rebelled against.

The Cold War

The Cold War led to the collapse of the Soviet Union, and it took about half a century to fall. After the end of World War II in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union launched this war and were a source of concern internationally. The idea of war was to fight against communism, and avoid its spread it in the United States and then to the rest of the world.

Arms Race

The arms race was one of the reasons for the fall of the Soviet Union, where the United States and the Soviet Union competed for the collection of sophisticated weapons. These weapons were called the strategic triad and included long-range bombers, submarines and ground missiles. The governments sought to store many nuclear weapons, all in order to maintain continuity of existence.

Economic Disability

Each country’s economy has a limited number of resources from which its capital is derived, that’s the strategic goods, such as guns or consumer goods; such as butter. If a country focuses heavily on weapons, people will be left without the consumer goods they need, but if the country produces a lot of butter, there would no longer be sufficient resources to develop the nation’s economic capacity or protect it from outside forces, so Stalin’s “five-year plans” were almost entirely based on the idea of increasing the production of capital goods for the nation, and the Soviet Union needed industrialization, to compete with the rest of the world. The only way to do that was to channel all available resources towards this goal. Unfortunately, for the Soviet people, the Politburo did not change to increase the availability of consumer goods, which showed the economic deficit beyond the Soviet system.

The fall of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union broke up on the 31st of December 1991. The great Soviet Union was replaced by 15 independent states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.


  1. ↑ Tarkan Rosenberg (7-4-2017), “The Downfall of Communism”،, Retrieved 18-7-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ أ ب ALIA HOYT, “How Communism Works”،, Retrieved 18-7-2018. Edited.
  3. ↑ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (13-7-2018), “Collapse of the Soviet Union”،, Retrieved 18-7-2018. Edited.
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث ج “Exploring 5 Reasons for the Collapse of the Soviet Union”,, Retrieved 12-12-2017. Edited.
  5. ↑ ALIA HOYT, “How Communism Works”،, Retrieved 12-12-2017. Edited.
  6. ↑ Martin McCauley, John C. Dewdney, Richard E. Pipes, Robert Conquest, “Union of Soviet Socialist Republics”،, Retrieved 13-12-2017. Edited.
  7. ↑ Priit Vesilind (22-12-2016), “25 Years On, Collapse of Soviet Union Still Brings Cheers—and Tears”،, Retrieved 20-3-2018. Edited.
  8. ↑ Tarkan Rosenberg (7-4-2017), “The Downfall of Communism”،, Retrieved 13-4-2018. Edited.
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث “Exploring 5 Reasons for the Collapse of the Soviet Union”,, Retrieved 20-3-2018. Edited.





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