Russian Civil War
It is one of the fiercest wars in history, which lasted from 1917 until 1921, and ended with the victory of the Bolshevik leftist groups led by “Vladimir Lenin” and a number of his rebels, and the arrest of the Tsar “Nicholas II” and then his execution.
That civil war was the beginning of the founding of the Soviet Union, which included many Western countries, but was dissolved by the end of the twentieth century.
Reasons for the outbreak of the Russian Civil War:
- “Vladimir Lenin’s” goal was to turn the imperialist war into a civil war, thinking that the Russian Revolution would not turn into a world revolution except with the start of the civil war.
- Resisting the ruling class of the Bolsheviks strongly.
- The dissolution of the parliament by the Bolsheviks, who constituted only a small minority.
- Treaty of “Brest-Litovsk”.
- The Bolshevik repressive measures in the countryside, where they targeted the wealthy peasants and looted their wealth in order to obtain the remaining grain.
- The role of some prisoners from Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, who have long tried to find effective solutions to all their problems in Russia using force.
- A number of four-party countries such as France, Britain and the United States have intervened in the internal affairs of the Russian state.
First phase (October 1917 – November 1918):
At this phase, two armies were prepared for each of the conflicting parties, in addition to the forces of the four-party alliance that intervened in Russian affairs. By the end of 1917, Tsar “Nicholas II” was overthrown, and with the end of his rule of Russia, all the Russian cities fell under the Bolshevik “Lenin”.
During that chaos, a number of cities took advantage of the opportunity and declared their independence, and the opponents of “Lenin’s” rule turned to the Germans as their supporters.
The armies in southern Russia, operating under the reign of Tsar “Nicholas II”, began to gather together under the leadership of the Russian commander “Kornilov” and succeeded in forming a bloc against the rule of “Lenin” and the Bolsheviks in general, and they succeeded in controlling “Rostov”.
Treaty of “Brest-Litovsk” with Germany:
By March 1918, a peace treaty had been signed between Russia and Germany, but Russia was not entirely satisfied with it and considered that the treaty was working to insult the Russian side strongly.
The Treaty showed out the weakness of “Lenin” and the Bolsheviks in general, as Russia emerged from World War I as a result of its signing of the Treaty. This increased the public anger towards the Bolsheviks, and tension within Russia increased.
Second phase November (1918 – March 1920):
At this phase, many battles took place between the White and Red armies.
The White Army represented all the Russian military and political forces against the Bolsheviks.
The Red Army represented the soldiers who were joined to form an army that supported the Bolshevik and “Lenin” groups.
The Red Army aimed to eliminate the white army troops supported by Czechoslovakia, Japan, the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, and the Red Army eventually controlled most of the country.
Third phase (March 1920 – October 1922):
The bloody conflict between the two armies, white and red, continued throughout the period until the end of October 1922, as the battles were fought in the capitals of each army and in central Russia.
- More than 2 million people have been killed, including soldiers from the White and Red armies, as well as the huge number of civilian deaths – women, men, and children.
- The whole of Russia suffered a drought from 1920 to 1921.
- The suffering of the Russian people from a catastrophic famine struck them by 1921.
- Millions died cause of famine, massacres, and courts where millions were executed without formal or legal trials.
- Epidemics spread sharply, with nearly 3 million people dying from typhoid in 1920.
- The displacement of more than three million Russian children, as a result of a decade of devastation left behind by World War I and the Civil War.
- The fled of Many Russian people to some countries of the Far East, and the Baltic States, they were all educated and skilled workers of the Russians.
- The entire Russian economy was destroyed during the war, as all factories, mines, bridges, and machinery were destroyed, livestock was looted, causing a real famine for the people of Russia at that time, as the country was exhausted.
How the Red Army won the War?
The war was basically to get rid of the oppression of the Bolsheviks, and the resistance was widespread throughout Russia, but resistance failed, and the Bolsheviks succeeded in regaining control of Russia.
This is due to “Trotsky”, one of “Lenin” men, who handled the war with great skill. Although he did not receive any military training in his life, he was a natural leader and had a strict policy of dealing with the leaders of the battalions.
“Trotsky” also used the veteran Tsarist men whose military experience was better than that of the Red Army, he knew that he needed their experience if he wanted to win the war. His strategy succeeded, as he won the war, but later lost his life, as this was used as a pretext against him in his trial on charges of treason set up by “Stalin” to get rid of him, and sentenced to death.
The execution of “Nicholas II”:
Tsar “Nicholas II” was captured and was placed with his family under house arrest in “Alexander’s Palace” in “Silo Traskoy” during the Russian Revolution, after the Bolsheviks took control of the government after Tsar “Nicholas II” abdicated it, he was taken again with his family to the “Special Intelligence House” in “Yekaterinburg”.
There were serious negotiations between the Bolsheviks and some relatives of the royal family in Europe about the release of “Romanov”, but with the advance of the White Army towards “Yekaterinburg”, where “Nicholas II” and his family were placed, The Bolshevik “Jurevski” killed all members of the royal family and their servants on 17 July 1918, so that the members of the White Army would not find them when they arrived.