The establishment of the Ottoman Empire was in 699 hijri, but the emergence of an Ottoman Islamic Caliphate was not at that time, but in 923 hijri, Osman Ben Artgrel was the founder of the Ottoman Empire, where he established on the territory of his rule, and made her a capital and a flag of its own, which is the present flag of Turkey. With the establishment of the Ottoman Empire emerged between them and the Mamluk State relations, which was initially a relationship and exchange of gifts, in addition to a relationship of cooperation to repel the Mongol aggression, but these relations changed and became tense because of the approach of the Ottomans from the borders of the Mamluks in Sham.
History of the genesis of Ottoman Empire
The origins of the Ottomans to the tribes of the Gazan, which lived in the areas beyond the river, which is known today as Turkistan, after the Mongol attack on Turkestan Turkish tribes migrated to Azerbaijan, and succeeded Osman Ben Artgrel, which is attributed to the Ottomans to form a state attributed to him, The capital of his country, and his state became a haven for many Muslims who fled the face of the Tatars; because he was the first to convert to Islam from the princes of his people; and this was attributed to him by the caliphs after him; in this an indication of their attachment to Islam and not nervousness, and after his death in 727 AH, The caliphs took the Byzantines fighting on their own, The Ottomans moved to Europe and opened large areas in it, and Mohammed the second succeeded to open the city of Constantinople in 857 AH, and became the name of Islam Paul, and is called Istanbul,
The Ottoman Empire was one of the longest-standing Islamic states in history. Its rule lasted more than six centuries. Its influence extended to Europe, Asia, and Africa, followed by 36 governors from the Osman family. The state emerged in 699 AH but did not receive the Caliphate until 923 AH , And turned from an Islamic state to the headquarters of the Islamic Caliphate, and although it did not include all the Islamic regions, but it included most of them, and was a focus for the eyes of Muslims in areas beyond its scope, because it was the seat of the Caliphate, and because its ruler is a successor to Muslims and being a superpower in the world at that time.
Successors of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman period was divided into two main phases: the first phase of power lasted from the beginning of the Ottoman Empire until the end of the reign of the Ottoman caliph Suleiman al-Mughni, and the second phase of weakness that began from the reign of Selim II until the end of the Ottoman Empire and the most important successors of the Ottoman Empire:
- Osman al-Ghazi ibn Artagarl: He is the founder of the Ottoman state and its builder, attesting to the unification of the Islamic country and the organization of a special army of the state. It was called the Ankhariyya, and this army had great victories over the Romans. He was able to destroy their fortifications.
- Orkhan bin Othman Ibn Artegrel: Orkhan had great interests in the Islamic conquests; he headed the Islamic armies himself and witnessed the opening of several cities; including Bursa and Azmid, and entrusted to his son Solomon to build castles and forts; in preparation for the opening of Constantinople.
- Bayazid bin Murad bin Orkhan: It was known about Bayazid frequent raids against the Crusaders, as subjected to the governor of Khorasan, and made it under the banner of the Ottoman Empire.
- Mohammed bin Bayazid: Sultan Mohammed was interested in the return of some countries that broke away from Ottoman rule, and put an end to the strife, and ended the conflicts within the Ottoman Empire.
- Murad bin Mohammed bin Bayazid: He was interested in building schools, mosques, and palaces, and he was interested in prosecuting all those who failed to pay the tribute.
- Muhammad ibn Murad bin Mohammed: the title of Mohamed is the conqueror; because he opened Constantinople after several centuries of siege, and ordered the construction of a mosque to Abu Ayyub al-Ansari at the place of his death in recognition of him; because it was the first of companions besieged the city of Constantinople.
- Bayazid ibn Muhammad al-Fatih: The state was characterized by prosperity and opulence and the maximization of religion, and built in his era many bridges, mosques, and roads.
- Salim bin Bayazid: In his reign, all those who separated from the Ottoman Empire, such as Persia, Egypt, returned to Ottoman rule, and was able to counter the attack of the Spaniards and Portugal on Algeria.
- Sulayman al-Qanuni: Sulayman ibn Sulayem I ibn Bayazid, took over the caliphate after the death of Salim , he was 25 years old, spent the rebels in El-Sham, and ended the existence of the Pirates of St. youhna who were threatening ships
Achievements of the Ottoman Empire
- Architectural achievements were mostly during the reign of Sultan Mohamed Al-Fateh; in his reign many mosques, hospitals and bridges were established.
- The construction of the Hijaz railway, which became the embodiment of the unification of Muslims, and that was during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
- The conquest of Constantinople in the reign of Sultan Mohamed the Conqueror.
- Protection of Islamic sanctities from the Portuguese Crusader threat.
- Arab states united under the Ottoman Empire in their traditions, culture and Arabic language.
- Reducing Jewish immigration to Sinai and Palestine.
The stages of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire began to collapse in the late 18th century due to the neglect of military development due to the period of calm that prevailed since the middle of the century. This gave European and Russian forces the opportunity to compete and become more powerful. As a result, the Ottoman Empire lost its territory during the war (1716-1718) and the Russo-Turkish War (1768 -1764). The empire followed some modern and modern reforms, but it continued in spite of the loss of land in the nineteenth century,
After the Italian-Turkish war of 1911, the empire lost some land for the benefit of Italy, followed by the loss of all Balkan lands during the first Balkan War (1912-1913). During this period, the Ottoman Empire faced rebellions from various ethnic groups, The Ottoman Empire attacked Russia on the banks of the Black Sea, provoking the beginning of the First World War. In response to this attack, Britain, France, and Russia joined together and declared War on the Amber The Ottoman Empire.
reasons for the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
The conflict over governance and machinations are woven into the palaces of the Sultans, played an important role in the life of the sultans for example, Selim took up arms in front of his brothers, and Soliman the first executed his sons Mustafa and Bayazid after their rebellion against his rule, and the killing of Murad III, and Mohammed III a number of their brethren After they took power, and thus followed the events of internal conflicts and wars, which played a role in the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
The economic difficulties began in the late 16th century when the Dutch and the British closed the old international trade routes across the Middle East. As a result, the flourishing of the Middle Eastern provinces declined. The flow of precious metals from the Americas to Europe led to the decline of the Ottoman economy, and the state treasury lost much of its profits due to the looting of the Dushirma. In order for the state to honor its obligations, it reduced the size of the currency, increased taxes sharply and resorted to confiscations, which worsened the situation and led to lower wages, B., and corruption.