The State of Italy or the Italian Republic, with its capital Rome, is a state partly located in the southern part of Europe (the Italian peninsula).
Is a state based on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean: Sardinia and Sicily. Italy shares with France, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia on the northern Alpine border and there are two independent states within the borders of the Vatican City and San Marino
It was the place where great empires and cultures emerged and affected most of the peoples of the ancient world. Italy also annexed the ancient Roman Empire, which ruled most of the ancient world.
Italian culture has been able to form a modern European Renaissance that has influenced the course of European thought and the world in general, and the modern Republic of Italy is one of the influential countries in the world for its strong economic position in Europe and its culture which makes it the most attractive country for tourists in the world.
History of Italy
Man settled in Italy nearly two hundred thousand years ago, and by the seventh century BC Greeks began to establish colonies on the coasts of Sicily and southern Italy in what is known as Greater Greece.
The city of Rome grew over the centuries to include the achievements of the Greek and Roman civilizations in a combination that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire, which western civilization in general founded on its cultural heritage.
The Roman Empire continued to dominate the ancient world until it began to decline since the second century AD and the emergence of Christianity, and was divided into two parts, and the western part of which was the component of modern Italy collapsed because of the Gothic attacks it introduced in the Middle Ages.
Renaissance and Enlightenment Eras
By the fifteenth century, Italian territory was the most civilized in Europe, although it was unable to unite again, and was divided into states such as Naples, Florence, and Venice. This period was called the Renaissance period because the old ideas were rediscovered and revived, which represented as a push forward to emerge from the ignorance of the Middle Ages, Florence was the center of an artistic renaissance with the presence of such great artists as Da Vinci and Michelangelo.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish and the Austrians ruled in large parts of Italian territory and its wealth was plundered by the Spaniards, but the emperors of the Austrian Hapsburg family adopted the Enlightenment to improve economic conditions, making the great cities of Italy fertile ground for intellectual debate.
Unification of Italy
National movements emerged to unite Italy in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II joined Prussia in the Austrian Prussian War and was able to annex the Venetian to the Kingdom of Italy.
In 1870, France withdrew from large parts of Italian territory during the Franco-Prussian War, allowing the Italian king to expand his kingdom and annex other parts of Italian territory. A few years later, Rome was annexed to the Kingdom and the capital moved from Florence to Rome, and the regime became a parliamentary monarchy.
Area and Population
The Italian territory covers an area of 301,338 km2, and a population of over 60 million, which is the sixth largest European country in terms of population, while it ranks 23rd among the world’s most populous countries. The Italian state has a mild seasonal climate
Italy is currently ranked 18th among the most advanced countries in the world and is ranked among the top ten in terms of its quality of life in the world and has a very high standard of living.
Italy is one of the founding members of what is now known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union. In addition, it is a member of the Group of Eight and the G-20.
Italy has the fifth largest government budget in the world and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). It is a member of the Western European Union, the Council of Europe and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the State contributes to NATO’s nuclear participation plan, and its defense budget ranks ninth in the world.
The euro is the official currency of Italy, and the euro equals 100 cents, divided into a group of currency categories: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Euros.
In the past, the Italian lira was the official currency of Italy, which was used since the 16th century. After Italy’s conversion to the euro in the 21st century, the Italian lira was finally stopped.
Administrative division of the Regions
Italy is made up of three basic administrative divisions; the first and largest are the regions, each with a group of provinces and large cities, each with a commune, which is the smallest.
Italy has a total of 20 regions, of which 5 are autonomous. The number of counties is 97, the number of major cities reaches 13, and the number of the commune is more than 8,000.
Cities of Italy
Italy has 13 major cities, which are as follows:
It is located in the Piedmont region, in the north-west of Italy, an inland city with no sea view. Its population is 2,282,197 in 2016, with an area of 6,830.25 km 2.
Is the current capital, located in the Latium region, in western Italy, overlooking the west on the coast of the sea, and the population of 4,340,474 people in 2016, and the total area of 5,351.81 km 2.
Located in Sicily, in southern Italy and northern Sicily, overlooking the sea from the north, it has a population of 1,271,406 people in 2016, and an area of 4,992.23 km 2.
It is located in the region of Puglia, in the south of Italy, overlooking the north on the coast of the sea, the population of 1,263,820 people in 2016, and an area of 3,825.43 km 2.
It is located in the region of Emilia-Romagna, in the center of Italy, an inland city with no view of the sea, the population of 1,005,831 people in 2016, and an area of 3,702.53 km 2.
It is located in Sicily, in the south of Italy, west of the island of Sicily, and overlooks the coast of the sea from the east, and has a population of 1,115,535 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 3,552.2 km 2.
Is the old capital, located in the Tuscany region, in the center of Italy, an inner city does not overlook any sea, and the population of 1,013,348 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 3,514.38 km 2.
It is located in Sicily, in southern Italy and northern Sicily, and overlooks the sea from the north. It has a population of 640,675 inhabitants, according to the 2016 statistics. It covers an area of 3,247.34 km 2.
It is located in the region of Calabria, in the far south of Italy, surrounded by water on three sides, and has a population of 555,836 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 3,183.19 km 2.
It is located in the Veneto region, in the north-east of Italy, overlooking the sea to the east and south-east, and the population of 855,696 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 2,461.52 km 2.
It is located in the region of Liguria, in the north of Italy, and overlooks the southern side of the sea, and has a population of 854,099 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 1,838.47 km 2.
It is located in the region of Lombardia, in northern Italy, an inland city with no coastline, with a population of 3,208,509 inhabitants in 2016, with an area of 1,578.9 km 2.
It is located in the region of Campania, in the south of Italy, overlooking the west on the coast of the sea, with a population of 3,113,898 people, according to statistics in 2016, and an area of 1,171.13 km 2.