The concept of industrial revolution
It is a term used for the replacement of manual labor with machinery. It also means the period in Western European countries when there was a comprehensive quality renaissance, which included the various branches and fields of life, which led to the emergence of many inventions and important discoveries that have made a significant change in people’s lives And States, to include political, economic, social, scientific and cultural aspects, whether in Europe or elsewhere.
The emergence of the Industrial Revolution
The era of the Industrial Revolution extended from 1760 to 1840.
The Industrial Revolution began after the invention of the steam machine in England in the 18th century, then moved to the rest of Western Europe and then to all parts of the world.
England is the first country to start this revolution; perhaps because it was an economically powerful country, in addition to having a strategic geographical location that made it far from the conflict areas.
Industrial Revolution in England
The agricultural revolution began in Britain in the mid-18th century, which improved the standard of living of the rural population, which led to a great increase in their demand for the use of advanced agricultural equipment, in addition the farmers saved part of their money in the development of industrial projects, Modern agriculture in agriculture and thus dispense with a large number of farmers, and provide cheap labor to work in factories.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
- The emergence of a set of scientific ideas, and inventions that put forward a major idea relied on the use of machinery as a means of industrial production.
- Thinking about improving agricultural production by relying on agricultural machinery in cultivation, grain harvesting, and various crops.
- Taking care to increase production efficiency, minimize effort, and time required in the production process.
- Completion of tasks, actions that can’t be done manually.
- Minimizing operating costs by eliminating labor and replacing them with low-cost machines.
- Planning for financial savings by relying on machinery industrial plans in the production of many materials.
Industrial Revolution Fields
The industrial revolution included several fields, such as:
Development of the textile industry: This was mainly in the houses before the machines, led to the emergence of the cottage industry. However, after the Industrial Revolution, the spinning machine was invented by James Hargreaves, a machine that produces many threads simultaneously. The cue of the yarn was improved by the British Samuel Crompton, in addition to the invention of the fabric weave that led to the weaving of the cloth, in the eighties of the eighteenth century, by Edmund Cartwright.
The development of the iron industry: Through the discovery of the fuel furnace by the English Abraham Darby; to produce iron in an easier and cheaper way, as developed by Henry Bismar, an inexpensive process for the production of steel and on a large scale. Iron and steel became used to make a lot of tools, In addition to ships, infrastructure.
The Spread of the Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution was not limited to Britain alone, but moved to many other countries, which worked hard to achieve the industrial revolution between its factories and fields of life, and the nineteenth century didn’t come to end until the industrial revolution spread greatly and spread to different parts of the world, including Western Europe, In addition to Japan, and at that time Germany began to launch the first steam-powered railway.
Results of the Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution led to economic prosperity and progress from the medical, industrial and economic aspects throughout Europe, especially in England, where the state revenues increased and had surplus funds. The most important results of this revolution are:
The outcome of the industrial revolution was to improve the quantity and quality of production both in different sectors, while reducing the effort and expense incurred by the owners of industries.
Ownership of factories and production tools possessed by a few businessmen and industrialists, who owned factories, banks, mines, markets and railway companies, and they achieved great wealth and lived in great prosperity
The industrial revolution also led to the agricultural revolution, with increased investment in agriculture and the development of techniques to improve food and increase cultivated areas.
The industrial revolution brought about major changes in the class system of European society, so that society divided into two classes:
- The first are the owners of factories, commercial and industrial enterprises and capital (the bourgeois class), where they were at the top of economic prosperity.
- The second are the workers’ class, who are factory workers, the majority of whom are displaced from rural areas in search of jobs provided by factories.
This obliges states to intervene to reduce the disadvantages of this disparity by establishing the number of restrictions and laws that would protect the labor system, such as the enactment of labor legislation on social security and the health of workers.
The industrial revolution led to the transfer of most of the population from manual labor in agriculture to the new jobs in the industrial sector, which led to the massive movement of workers from the countryside to the industrial cities to work cheaply in the exhausted jobs, and the condition of this class has been declined to extreme poverty, and all adult men, women and children have been forced to work in factories to earn a living.
With the beginning of the 19th century, these workers were able to obtain the right to form trade unions, and then the laws regulating the work in the factories emerged, which helped to improve the living conditions and grant social security to workers.
Political and cultural results
The industrial revolution had a great impact at all levels, especially the political and cultural levels, and the results were:
- Social security legislation to insure workers against accidents, diseases and unemployment.
- Grant workers in general and women in particular the right to elect and vote.
- The emergence of a number of political parties that have undertaken to defend workers’ rights and interests and to participate in the political life of States.
- Increasing competition between industrialized countries in their quest to control the main sources of raw materials, in addition to external markets, as well as energy sources and transportation around the world.
Another consequence is the emergence of communist thought; as the living conditions of the industrial revolution led to the emergence of Marxism and the call for a more humane society, and led to the Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917, which brought communism into the former Soviet Union and later Russia.
- ^ أ ب ت غسّان محمود إبراهيم / المجلّد السابع / ص 367، “الثورة الصناعيّة”، الموسوعة العربيّة، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 20 -12- 2016. بتصرّف.
- ^ أ ب ت ث المصدر/ الجزيرة (22 -3- 2016)، “الثورة الصناعية”، الجزيرة نت، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 20 -12- 2016. بتصرّف.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح مجلّة الصناعة والاقتصاد (21 -4- 2015)، “كيف تطوّرت الثورة الصناعيّة في أوروبا ؟”، مجلّة الصناعة والاقتصاد، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 20 -12- 2016. بتصرّف.
- ↑ د. فؤاد الخطيب (19 -12- 2016)، “القاطرة البخارية … والثورة الصناعية”، الجبهة / صحيفة الاتحاد، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 20 -12- 2016. بتصرّف.
- ^ أ ب هيئة من المؤلفين (1999)، الموسوعة العربية العالمية (الطبعة الثانية)، الرياض- المملكة العربية السعودية: مؤسسة أعمال الموسوعة للنشر والتوزيع، صفحة 68-69، جزء 8 (ث-ج). بتصرّف.
- ^ أ ب “الثورة الصناعية”، aljazeera.net، 2016-3-22، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 2018-6-20. بتصرّف.
- ↑ هيئة من المؤلفين (1999)، الموسوعة العربية العالمية (الطبعة الثانية)، الرياض- المملكة العربية السعودية: مؤسسة أعمال الموسوعة للنشر والتوزيع، صفحة 70-71، جزء 8 (ث-ج). بتصرّف.
- ^ أ ب هيئة من المؤلفين (1999)، الموسوعة العربية العالمية (الطبعة الثانية)، الرياض- المملكة العربية السعودية: مؤسسة أعمال الموسوعة للنشر والتوزيع، صفحة 77-78، جزء 8 (ث-ج). بتصرّف.
- ↑ “Industrial Revolution”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 2018-6-20. Edited.
- ^ أ ب “INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION”, www.history.com, Retrieved 2018-6-20. Edited.