India is a South Asian country bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. It is located between Burma and Pakistan and has borders with six countries: China with a length of 2,659 km, Bangladesh with a length of 4,142 Km, Butan with a length of 1,770 km, Pakistan with a length of 3,190 Km and Burma with a length of 1,468 km. The city of New-Delhi is the capital of India. India is a country with 3,287,263 km2 as an area, and it is the 8th biggest country in area, with a population of about 1,281,935,911 people, where occupies the second largest country in terms of population, according to the statistics of 2017.
India is made up of 29 states, and it’s a constitutionally independent republic politically and culturally, It was completely liberated from US sovereignty in 1947, and it has managed its own affairs without any interference from outside parties. India comes after China in population, The Indian monuments indicate that India is distinguished by a sophisticated culture, which came from the Sindh civilization that prevailed about 2,600 BC. As a result of this civilization, many religions emerged in the region: Hinduism, Buddhism and Genes. Over the years, people have been able to develop their intellectual lives in many areas, such as mathematics, astronomy, architecture, literature, fine arts.
|Before 9,000 year||When stable human settlements emerged.|
|500 BC||The rule of the Vedic era ended.|
|550 BC||Many independent republics and kingdoms founded throughout its territory and called Mahajanabadas.|
|Third Century BC||Its territory was united with the Moorish Empire.|
|Third Century AD||India ruled by the Gupta dynasty and was called the Golden Age.|
|Between the Tenth and Twelfth Centuries||Conquered by Muslim Mongols|
|1856||Fall under the control of the British occupation.|
|15 August 1947||Has gained its independence.|
Languages in India
The Indian people have four main languages: Indo-Iranian, Dravidian, Austro-Asian, and Tibetan-Burmese languages, besides the existence of secondary languages spoken by people in small areas. About 25 languages are classified into one language group. The official language of the government is the Indian language, which is the mother tongue of the country. There are also official languages in the government, called the “Scheduled Languages”, where the Indian Constitution recognizes them. Language, which are about 22 languages classified to several names, which are: Indo-European, and Dravaidyan, Telugu, Tibetan-Chinese, and the language known as (Austroasiatic (Santhali.]
Indian Civilization BC
India is considered as a source of the first civilizations in the world. Its civilization, which emerged before the birth of Christ, had a great influence on the later development of the country, in addition to its influence on the way of life of East Asian people in general. In addition, the oldest artifacts dating back to the Stone Age were found in New Delhi, where they were stone tools, also this era witnessed a great development in agriculture, hunting and grazing, The first Indian civilization was arisen within it, known as the Harapan civilization, as well two cultures emerged in the period of the BC of the stone age civilization: The first, originated in the northern region, in the Indus Valley and Pakistan, and was called “flint culture”, and the second, originated in the southern part, and was called “Madras culture”.
The Vedic period came after the Harapan civilization, and remained until the fifth century BC, and was characterized by the presence of sculptures of Indian costume the (sari), in addition to sculptures in the form of people with folded hands in the form of the cross, which is a symbol known for the Vedic period, Where it is considered as the symbol of devotion at that time, also the texts of Hinduism and Sanskrit clergy were recorded, such as Ramayana, and Mahabharata, which is considered the longest poem in the world.
Religion in India
There are many religions practiced in India, and the main religions are Hinduism, which is the religion of the majority, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Baha’ism. So India is considered the land of diversity, where people of different faiths and cultures live, and the intimacy and fraternity are expressed by all religions and cultures.
Economy of India
There is great diversity in the Indian economy, including rural agriculture based on ancient methods, modern agriculture, and old and modern handicrafts. However, the biggest dependence on the economy is the reliance on services, especially the services provided by English speakers such as IT services and software, With a good economy in the region, per capita income in India is little compared to the average global income, that’s why India has followed the economic liberalization system, by removing the restrictions on the industrial sector, regulated privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduced fees to traders and investors Foreigners, thereby accelerating the country’s economic growth by 7%.
Culture in India
The civilization of India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It started about 4500 years ago. The Indians made great progress in the architecture evident in the Taj-Mahal, mathematics in the invention of zero, and medicine in Ayurveda. Today, each region has its own distinct customs, traditions, religion, food, arts, and others.
The Indian dish is characterized by the use of lots of herbs, curries, and spices, such as ginger, coriander, halo, turmeric, dried chili, cinnamon, and others, also cooking styles vary from region to region.
The Indian woman wears the sari. While the man wears a long cloth wrapped around their waist and fixed in the back called dhoti.
The Largest Indian Cities
India has many cities that are densely populated and economically important.