How did Granada fall?
The city of Granada lies within the borders of the province of Granada in the Andalusia region in the southern part of Spain and extends to a distance of 88.02 km² in parallel with the Sierra Nevada mountain range
Granada, the last stronghold of Muslims in Europe, specifically in Andalusia, which fell after the fall of the rule of Muslim Arabs, which lasted eight centuries, the country of Andalusia was conquered by Musa bin Nusair and Tariq ibn Ziad in the year 92 AH, and ruled by the Goths tribes, where flourished civilization, Then a beacon of science and religion in the depths of Europe, Where flourished by a civilization, to become a beacon of science and religion in the depths of Europe, the state passed in Andalusia many roles, each role of its advantages and characteristics, as follows:
Age of Birth (92 AH – 138 AH)
Which extends from the first day to open the country of Andalusia, until the fall of the Umayyad state where Andalusia was part of the Umayyad state, and twenty-three governor ruled Andalusia during the period of the Umayyad rule, many of them were martyred by the follow-up to conquests in Europe. The features of this period include:
- The outbreak of tribal strife between the Arabs and the Berbers on the one hand, and the tribes of Yamania and Qaysia on the other, which led to the shedding of much blood between the conflicting parties, and also led to the loss of a number of areas to the north of Andalusia, and this edition is the most important and the biggest reasons led to the fall of the Islamic rule in Andalusia.
- Many Berbers embraced the thought of the Kharijis, which was popular during that period after fleeing from the cities of Mashreq (the east) to the cities of Morocco (the west), fleeing the strong blows launched by the Umayyad state.
- Repeated attempts to penetrate the heart of Europe and the opening of the country of France, and the battles fought by Muslims at this stage, the battle (tile martyrs), which is one of the greatest battles led by Muslim Arabs in this era.
The First Umayyad Period (138 AH – 238 AH)
This era extended a century, and called the era of prosperity of the state, from its features:
- The elimination of the revolutions that erupted in rejection of the leadership of the central government of Cordoba, these revolutions sparked by the Arab tribal leaders, so the Umayyad Abdul Rahman eliminated these revolutions with all force and firmness.
- The repeated attempts by the Abbasid state to undermine the Umayyad rule there, but all these attempts failed.
- The emergence of a number of kingdoms and its crystallization to the north of Andalusia, and was intended to restore their property in Andalusia, which fell into the hands of Muslims, and from these kingdoms the kingdoms of Leon and Aragon.
- The Umayyad Abd al-Rahman consolidated the foundations of governance and control of all the problems facing the country of Andalusia, which led to the stability of the state and its prosperity, he also established permanent barracks for the army and established the Andalusian fleet.
- The spread of well-being and luxury, and the interest in urban expansion, where they built parks and luxury palaces and at that period the brightness of the phenomenon of singing and amazement and entertainment began.
- At the end of this era, the westerners’ revolutions began to take place.
The Second Umayyad Period (238 AH – 300 AH)
This era was called the era of the first decline when all parts of Andalusia swept violent revolutions and the most important features of this period:
- The independence of a number of States, particularly in the north and south of the central State of Córdoba.
- Tribal revolutions returned after Al-Dakhil put an end to them, and these tensions intensified between the Arabs and the Berbers, where the Berbers conquered many areas, especially in the south.
- On the other hand, the Fifth Column revolution intensified and they became Westerners, who were the sons of Spaniards, whose blood was mixed with Arab blood, and adopted the style of the Arabs and their language as a way of life, but they did not convert to Islam.
The Third Umayyad Period (300 AH – 368 AH)
The era of the declaration of the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate in the country, and ruled by two men, Abdul Rahman al-Nasser, and he inherited the rule after him his son Al-Mustansir.
During their rule of Andalusia, Andalusia regained its prosperity, as they reunited the provinces after its collapse due to repeated revolutions. During this period, the country witnessed the spread of the councils of science, the spread of urbanization and the building of internal and external power of the state, even described as the era of Andalusian Glory.
Age of Al-Hajib Al-Mansur (368 AH – 399 AH)
This era was one of the most prosperous Andalusian times. The characteristic of this era was the Jihad, which was led by Al-Mansur, who was described as the strongest and the greatest ruler of Andalusia, where he launched 50 invasions on the strongholds of the Christians in Spain; he was the winner in all of them, where he conquered Barcelona and Shant Jacob.
For the first time since the conquest of Andalusia, a ruler was able to tighten his grip on it as Al-Mansour did, and all conspiracies against him failed, and after his death, his son took over the reins of government to follow his father’s approach.
The age of the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate (399 AH – 422 AH)
It was called the era of chaos, where the prestige of the Andalusian state was lost, which was ruled by a number of weak governors, and in this period emerged the idea of using the Spanish Christians in the north to fight the king, where the control was for the Berbers in this period, who created a state called the state of Bani Hammoud after they took over a number of cities in Andalusia, especially in the south.
In addition to the return of tribal conflicts between the Berbers and the Arabs, the Sicilians emerged, who ruled the eastern Andalusian Islands.
The kings of the sects (422 AH – 483 AH)
The era of the rupture of Andalusia or the disastrous era, where the state broke up into 22 states, and its features:
The spread of corruption and moral degeneration to include kings and nationals at the same time, which weakened the pillars of the state and make it fragile in front of what was planned in secret.
Ignited destructive wars between the kings of the sects, each was seeking to expand the influence at the expense of the other, until they started to use the enemies to achieve victory and prevail over others from other states.
The Spanish took advantage of this, and they united under the banner of a leader known for his strength and strength (Alfonso VI), who achieved a strong victory over the Muslims in Andalusia and conquered the city (Toledo).
The Age of Al-Moravid (483 AH – 539 AH)
This era is characterized by the restoration of the state in Andalusia some of its strength and prestige, after the kings of the sects asked the Al-Moravid state for help, which ruled North Africa, and its ruler Yusuf ibn Tashifin, who led his armies to Andalusia to achieve victory over the Spaniards.
Due to the toughness of their style derived from their way of life in the desert, which is contrary to the well-being of the people of Andalusia, which made people complain of their way and their rule, so the Almoravid rule in Andalusia was fallen after the war launched by the son of Tomert.
The Age of the Al-Mwahedeen (539 AH – 630 AH)
They were the followers of Muhammad ibn Tumart, where they took the land of Andalusia and Morocco after their overthrow of the Almoravids, but they followed the Almoravid in the fight against Spaniards.
One of the most important victories they achieved was the Battle of the Arek, but it did not last the same as the Crusaders won a crushing victory in the battle of Al-Eqab, which led to the fall of the Al-Mwahedeen, in addition to the revolutions of Andalusians themselves on this provision.
The Age of the Kings of Beni El-Ahmar (Granada) (630 AH – 896 AH)
After the decline and fall of Andalusia, the states became independent of each other, which made it easier for the Spanish to seize these dilapidated states in a short period.
The Arabs and Muslims fled to their last strongholds in Andalusia (Granada), which was founded by Ibn al-Ahmar (Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Nasri), and his sons ruled the country until its fall. Granada was the only one that remained steadfast in the face of the invaders, as the exodus of Muslim Arabs was a source of strength for its steadfastness.
It was the help of the princes of Morocco (Beni Marin) a cause of the steadfastness of the city, where they provided Granada with soldiers and weapons to meet all the challenges facing them, and reached the peak of strength and glory in the era of (Muhammad V).
As soon as the sedition broke out in the Kingdom of Granada, the Spaniards were strengthened and reunited under the banner of Fernand Isabella, and the internal conflict in Granada reached a peak among the princes, especially between Ali Abul Hassan and his son Abi Abdullah.
The Spanish launched a continuous war on the Kingdom of Granada, which was interrupted by long periods of siege and undermined the pillars of the state, which led it to fall and the surrender of its people.