- Is a right-wing ideological and political ideology that emerged in Europe in the second decade of the twentieth century.
- It gave the executive authority all the rights, and it glorified the principles of the state to the point of sanctification, and the head of state is the source of authority.
- The origin of the word fascism originates in the so-called Latin (Fasces), which means a pack of bars, symbolizes punitive power.
- Emerged after the transformations that occurred in Europe during the nineteenth century, which rejected the model of the state that was spread at that time, which was based on traditional liberalism and multi-parliamentary democracy.
- Fascism dominated most parts of Europe and had supporters in the United States, South Africa, Japan, Latin America, and the Middle East.
- The fascist parties varied and differed but participated in many characteristics, such as their rejection of electoral democracy and political pluralism, their intolerance of the homeland and the glorification of the leader. They also believed in the social hierarchy and that individual interests must subject to the interests of the state.
- The fascist movement was associated with the German Nazi and Italian movements, which dominated the government after the end of the First World War.
The Origin and History of Fascism
The origin of the word fascism comes from the Italian word “Fascio”, which means the ax clenched with sticks, which was considered a symbol of the Fascist.
The movement was launched by the first leader of this movement, Benito Mussolini in 1919, and combined it with many social rights such as women’s right to vote, the labor force, and allied with provinces and governments and managed to gain power.
The fascist movement spread in many European countries, by the parties, and threatened many political movements:
- Raided on the occupied socialist towns and fought against socialist farmers’ organizations in Italy in 1922 by an armed fascist movement known as Black-shirt Militia, which received funding from industrialists.
- Mussolini’s fascist movement led a demonstration in Rome. The government responded by giving him the premiership, but he set himself up as a dictator and allied with Nazi Germany.
The movement has expanded in Albania, Ethiopia, and many other countries, One of the main reasons for its emergence was the defeat of the countries participating in the First World War, which divided European countries into losers and victors, in addition to the economic crisis of the war, resulting in nationalist tendencies that aspire to the restoration of their national dignity.
The Fascist Movements
The Italian Fascism
Italian fascism was founded by Mussolini, who exploited the events of Italy’s war of unity, which resulted in the annexation of Rome to Italy as the capital, as well as the social, economic and ethnic differences that emerged among the Italians.
He founded the movement in Milan, and its influence reached parliament in 1921 and used armed bands of warriors to terrorize communists and socialists.
In 1922 Mussolini and his group of black-shirts organized a large demonstration aimed at reaching the government and raising its motto: “Either we are given the government or we will take our right by marching to Rome.” By this demonstration, he was able to gain power after the King rejected the Prime Minister’s request to declare a state of emergency.
Mussolini set himself up as a leader, suspended the activities of all his opponents and suppressed them, and abolished the parties and trade union organizations.
Known for his hostile foreign policy, where he occupied Ethiopia, supported General Franco in his Spanish civil war, and worked closely with German Nazism and supported them in World War II, but the loss of these two countries led to the fall of fascism, besides the arrest of Mussolini and his execution, and the entry of the Allies to Rome in 1943.
There were many Fascisms and places of their spread, as Mussellini supported both:
- The German fascism founded by the German National Socialist Laborers Party, which represents the socialist vision of Adolf Hitler.
- The Spanish fascism; by assisting General Franco in the Spanish Civil War, as both German and Italian planes participated in the bombing of several socialist parties’ sites, leading to the resolution of the confrontation in favor of the Spaniards.
Spanish fascism differs from German and Italian in being less hostile, as General Franco refused to participate in the war and alliance with the Axis Powers, and refused to use Nazi German forces his territory as a transit point to Africa.
Other Fascisms have also emerged:
- The French Socialist Party, which is the fastest and largest party whose growth increased between 1936 and 1938.
- The regime of Olivier de San Lazar, who emerged in Portugal in 1933-1968, but he was neutral, by not participating in the Second World War, despite his characterization of the hostility and bloodiness of his bloody wars in Guinea-Bissau and Angola.
- Greece also knew regimes with fascist qualities and was presided over by General Leonis Metaxas in 1936-1941.
- The Fascisms in the countries of Croatia, Hungary, and Romania were characterized by their participation in nationalism and racism, rejection of democracy, and political and trade union pluralism.