European Renaissance is a term used to refer to the various general doctrines that emerged in Europe during the period when the system of feudalism collapsed, the emergence of the first bourgeois society from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries AD, and the diversity of doctrines between social and philosophical as seen in the history of philosophy, During this period, the revival of the philosophical heritage and the revival of human culture, as during the European Renaissance, were the discovery of many successive scientific matters, new approaches to education and research, and the changing social and economic thought of the Europeans.
It can be said that the European Renaissance is a comprehensive renewal movement that includes changing most aspects of European life, and has helped to show new trends in the thinking and opinions of individuals and their ways of living and completion of their work as they gradually began to liberalize those restrictions that restricted them in their thinking and living In the period from the 10th century to the fifteenth century AD, and this Renaissance movement has played a major role in the promotion of European societies in various areas of life, and have had positive effects on the rich people, has had a negative impact on poor and vulnerable people also, Strong peoples in an attempt to obliterate the identity of vulnerable peoples and force them to conform to the manifestations of European renaissance.
With reference to the Renaissance, it can be said that it is a period of periods of European civilization after the end of the Middle Ages, was characterized by this period the occurrence of several discoveries of the most important geographical discoveries revealed the existence of new continents, in addition to the growth of trade and the decline of the feudal system Feudal system. In the Renaissance, many things were invented, such as paper and printing machines, which developed from commerce, invented gunpowder and the compass used by seafarers. Classical learning methods and culture were revived after suffering a long period of stagnation. That era Renaissance is one of the most important periods in the history of Europe throughout the ages, and some of them see that the concept of Renaissance is completely rejected. A group of historians argues about whether the European Renaissance was the beginning of the modern world, but most historians believe that the European Renaissance Is an era of various characteristics, manifestations, and factors that led to its emergence. It was a period that began in the late 15th century and ended with the end of the Napoleonic era, which paved the way for the end of the French Revolution.
Aspects of the European Renaissance
The intellectual revolution is an essential feature of the European Renaissance, an internal revolution that revived the old heritage to fit the new age. It also took great care in religion and aimed to bring it back to the net. The intellectual revolution was a reactionary internal revolution, based primarily on the old pagan, The Renaissance has resulted in an intellectual revolution, in which two parallel lines move in one direction. One is concerned with the person and his truth and the other, while the other cares about the Christian religion and aims to return it to its origin without distortion.
The religious revolution opened the way to the intellectual revolution. It affirmed the freedom of belief and separated religion from power. One of the most important achievements of the religious revolution was the renewal of the church buildings that were indicative of the stagnation of society. Freedom of conscience or conscience, and religion became the property of the believer and private, that is an individual matter means everyone and everyone else, which led to the marginalization of the concept of community or community, which embraces a particular religion and follow the principle of the group.
Moral Revolution The moral revolution is a religious revolution. The religious revolution has led to a major change in the moral rules of individuals in society. Many reformers have attempted to change and transform ethics as they wish, including Luther who equated faith with virtue , As it appeared in two new ideas of ethics in the sixteenth century AD, the first idea he advocated is the unity of the human race, Europe has generally believed that humanity has two basic cups are Christianity and paganism, but openness to the new world led to recognition To other parts of humanity that Europe was unaware of, which led to Luther’s call for the unity of humanity and not division.
Areas of European Renaissance
Literary and artistic Renaissance
One of the most famous pioneers of the literary and artistic development was the Italian poet Dante, who wrote the Divine Comedy, inspired by ancient Greek and Roman literature, made Italian the official language of writing, and contributed to the revival of modern languages instead of the Old Latin by reviving German nationalism. Chooser, who wrote stories in English, and Cervantes, who wrote a Spanish story, Leonardo da Vinci contributed to the Renaissance through his art, which was manifested in the painting of several paintings, most notably the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa, Kiavila, a philosopher and political thinker has contributed to the renaissance prince wrote a book, was first written in terms of political philosophy.
A scientific and intellectual renaissance
Among those who contributed to the intellectual development was the architect Bonelsky Glorinci, who excelled in the classical art applied in churches and cathedrals. There is also Lorenzo Valle, a historical critic who has done several historical studies that proved the papacy’s right to temporal authority. Scientific research and the experimental and scientific method that paved the way to the revival of science, and John Gövenberg invented the process of printing in moving letters, was Harvey medical researcher to discover the circulation in 1616, Newton has published his discoveries about gravity and laws of movement, The Medici family established a library called San Giorgio Madjuri for Arts, Sciences and Arts in Venice. Justin Pliton established the Academy of Platonic Studies in Florence in 1438 AD
Factors of the European Renaissance
- Revival of ancient heritage
- Human movement
- The emergence of national languages
- Artistic Renaissance
Italy is the cradle of the European Renaissance
Italy was the cradle of the European Renaissance. It was the factor that brought the Renaissance to maturity. The Renaissance began to spread throughout Europe gradually.
Cities of Italy
Geographical location of Italy
Ancient Roman civilization
- ↑ “Renaissance”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 2018-3-11. Edited.
- ↑ “Renaissance”, www.encyclopedia.com, Retrieved 2018-3-11. Edited.
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- ^ أ ب أ. ستار علك عبد الكاظم الطفيلي (2013-1-27)، “عصـر النهـضة”، uobabylon.edu.iq، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 2018-3-11. بتصرّف.