Chinese Civil War
Occurred between the ruling “Kuomintang Party”, which was supported by the United States of America, and the “Chinese Communist Party”, which was supported by the Soviet Union.
Lasted for years and resulted in the victory of the “Chinese Communist Party”, the KMT’s withdrawal to Taiwan.
The situation in China before the civil war
After the success of the “Shanghai Revolution” to topple the monarchy in China in 1911, chaos and unrest prevailed.
Warlords seized and shared the country, and the “KMT” leader, “Son Yat-sen”, sought to defeat them and reunite China.
To achieve this goal, “Son Yat-sen” appealed to many western democratic countries to help him, but without any reply, so he turned to the Soviet Union in 1921.
The Soviet Union agreed, provided that the small “Chinese Communist Party” was allowed to join him.
In 1923, both the “Kuomintang” and the “Chinese Communist Party” formed one block against the warlords.
The Beginning of the Civil War
After the death of “KMT” leader “Son Yat-sen” in May in 1925, he was succeeded by “Chiang Kai-shek”.
“Chiang Kai-shek” carried out a campaign of a purge against the leftists and members of the “Chinese Communist Party” and executed hundreds of them, known as the “Shanghai Massacre”, which took place on 12 April 1926.
“Chiang Kai-shek” fought the peasants who took over the land they were working in. Then, “Mao Zedong” the “KMT” Central Committee member, demanded the removal of “Chiang Kai-shek” from the Kuomintang presidency in March 1927, his request was rejected, and that was the reason for the separation and the cessation of cooperation between the two parties.
The parties to the Chinese Civil War
- The “Chinese Communist Party”: led by “Mao Zedong”, the military arm of the “Chinese Red Army”, supported by the Soviet Union.
- The “Chinese Kuomintang Party”: led by “Chiang Kai-shek”, his military arm the “Chinese National Army”, supported by the United States of America.
The first stage of the Chinese civil war
The clash between the “Chinese Red Army” and the “Chinese National Army” began on August 1, 1927.
On August 4, 1927, the CRA withdrew from “Nanchang City”, which was controlled by the CNA. Meanwhile, the CRA took control of the southern city of “Guangdong”.
During the meeting of the “Chinese Communist Party” on August 7, 1927, members of the party announced their intention to take power by force. The next day, The CNA launched a large-scale campaign against the Communists in “Wuhan”, and the CRA took control of several areas in southern China.
In September, an armed rebellion took place in the countryside, led by “Mao Zedong”, and was known as the “Autumn Harvest Uprising”. This marked the beginning of a few years of armed struggle in mainland China.
In 1930, the “Central Plains War” broke out as an internal conflict in the Kuomintang.
The remaining communists within the Kuomintang were eliminated in five campaigns that lasted until 1934.
The CRA retreated, which was known as the “Long March”, from the south to the north and west.
In November 1935, the withdrawals stopped when the CRA arrived in “Shaanxi”.
War World II
On December 12, 1936, two members of the Kuomintang party besieged “Chiang Kai-shek” and forced him to appease the “Chinese Communist Party” in the so-called “Xi’an” incident to confront the Japanese enemy, which stopped the civil war until 1945.
World War II ended with the defeat of Japan and its surrender to the CNA.
In “Manchuria”, the Japanese surrendered to the Soviet Union. The commander of the CNA, asked the Soviet Union to postpone their withdrawal from Manchuria until his troops arrived there, but the Soviet Union refused to allow the CNA to cross the “Manchurian” territory.
Truce attempts between the “Kuomintang” and the “Chinese Communist Party”
The first peace negotiations between the KMT and the CPC were held in “Chongqing” on August 28, 1945.
It concluded on 10 October 1945 by signing an agreement on the importance of peaceful reconstruction.
The conference produced no tangible result, and the fighting between the two sides continued until an agreement was reached in January 1946, forming a bipartisan government.
The CRA was controlling the quarter of the Chinese territory, its strength grew enormously, and had increased to 1,200,000 troops, and two million troops with other militias. The Soviet Union turned over all captured Japanese arms and supplies to the CRA.
The CNA was supported by the United States and was controlling most of the banks, factories and commercial property seized by the “Imperial Japanese Army” and recruited troops at a brutal pace from the civilians, causing great suffering to the people.
The resumption of the Chinese Civil War
On November 15, 1945, the CNA launched an attack on the CRA forces and took over the city of “Qinzhou” on November 26, 1945.
This was followed by a communist attack on the “Shandong Peninsula” and was largely successful, as the CRA controlled the peninsula, and China entered a civil war that lasted more than three years.
Confrontations between the CRA and the CNA “Liberation War”.
On July 20, 1946, the CNA launched a large-scale attack on a communist territory.
The CRA carried out the “negative defense” strategy by trying to keep the CNA as far as possible, and the tactic succeeded. A year later, the balance of power became more appropriate for the CRA.
In March 1947, the CNA achieved a victory by capturing the CRA capital “Yan’an City”.
On June 30, 1947, the CRA crossed the “Yellow River” and moved to the Dabi Mountains and recovered the central plains.
CRA forces began a counterattack, and by late 1948 the CRA had taken over the northern cities and the northeast of China.
In addition, the CRA forced the CNA to surrender after its siege in “Changchun City” for six months, as the CRA seized tanks, heavy artillery and other weapons held by the CNA.
By April 1948, the CRA took control of “Luoyang City”, then seized “Jinan” and “Shandong Province” on September 24, and by early 1949 the CRA had taken control of central China.
Soviet President “Joseph Stalin” wanted the Chinese Civil War to end with the formation of a coalition government from the “CPC” and the “Kuomintang” in China, so he tried to prevent the CRA from crossing the “Yangtze River” and moving to the south.
But on April 21, 1949, the CRA crossed the “Yangtze River” and seized the capital of the CNA of “Nanjing”.
The CNA began a series of withdrawals, till reaching Taiwan on December 10, 1949.
The end of the Civil War and the founding of the two Republics of China
On October 1, 1949, the CPC chairman declared the “People’s Republic of China”, and its capital is the renamed city of Beijing.
In the same month, the KMT chairman announced the establishment of the “Provisional Republic of China” and continued to stress that his government is the only legitimate authority in China.
The American position of the “People’s Republic of China”.
The Soviet Union recognized the “People’s Republic of China”, while US President “Harry Truman” announced on Jan. 5, 1950 that, his country would not participate in any dispute over the “Taiwan Straits”.
With the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 and the standing of the “People’s Republic of China” alongside North Korea, the US President ordered the US Seventh fleet to sail to the “Taiwan Straits” to prevent the “People’s Republic of China” from attacking Taiwan.
International recognition of the “People’s Republic of China”.
On October 25, 1971, the UN General Assembly recognized the “People’s Republic of China” and expelled Taiwan, which was a founding member of the UN and one of the five permanent members of the “Security Council”.
Most other governments soon recognized the “People’s Republic of China”, including the USA, and abolished the United States’ recognition of Taiwan.