British occupation of Egypt
Like other countries in the Islamic world, Egypt was ruled by the Ottoman Empire and ruled by Islamic law and based on the issues of Islam in the presence of Al-Azhar, and the senior scientists, with some shortcomings and deviation, rarely recognized by anyone.
The French led by Napoleon Bonaparte carried out their campaign against Egypt in 1798, after they prepared for that by sending spies, who studied the country’s situation and the extent of its occupation, but they have not been able to stay there for only 3 years, because of the union of the people against them, and their united stand against the campaign (Rulers and People), despite Napoleon’s many assurances to them that he did not even want to prejudice Islam
The British repeated what the French had done, by sending a military campaign led by “Fraser” to occupy Egypt, but also failed for the same reasons.
The Ottomans continued to rule Egypt through the governors, who were appointed by them one by one, but the Egyptian people did not approve of their injustice and arbitrariness, until (Muhammad Ali Pasha) was appointed as a governor after being chosen by the people and scholars dignitaries and with the prior permission of the Ottoman Empire, Provided that he judges by justice.
Muhammad Ali Pasha took advantage of the opportunity and did not miss it. So he ruled the country and started his rule with a heinous massacre against the remnants of the “Mamluks”, who were competing with him.
Mohammed Ali Pasha was preoccupied with military matters, as the most important: were his campaign against the “Salafists” in the Arabian Peninsula, his campaign against Sudan, and other military campaigns.
“Muhammad Ali Pasha” died in 1849 and was succeeded by his grandson “Abbas ibn Tusun ibn Muhammad Ali” (1848 AD to 1854 AD), who was succeeded by “Sa’id ibn Muhammad Ali” (1854 AD to 1864 AD), who granted the privilege of drilling the Suez Canal to his friend the French engineer “De Lesbes” on unfair terms, and in his reign also the debt problem started, as he began to borrow from the West with interest rates to achieve the Suez Canal drilling and other burdensome work to the budget of the country without a substantial benefit to be derived from them.
He was followed by the Khedive “Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Mohammed Ali” (from 1863 to 1879), and during his reign the Suez Canal was opened, and the debts were inflated, which he used to spend lavishly on formalities which were useless for the country, which forced him to sell the share of Egypt from the Canal to the British, so the European countries began to strongly intervene in the country under the pretext of protecting their financial rights, which reached to the imposition of two European ministers within the composition of ministers, in addition to the influx of foreigners under his rule to Egypt, and the establishment of their own courts.
The prime minister during the era of “Ismail” was the Christian “Nubar Pasha”, who was his tendencies and emotions along with Britain.
In the era of “Ismail”, “Jamal al-Din al-Afghani” came to Egypt at the invitation of Minister “Riyad Pasha”, who was of Jewish origin, and his family claimed Islam.
The “Afghani” broadcast his revolutionary and modern ideas among the Egyptians, forming a group of those affected by his ideas, and focused their ideas on the creation of various newspapers, distorting the image of the ruler and scientists, and exploitation of the country’s conditions, in addition to the urgency to demand parliamentary rule, the establishment of parties, and the popular participation.
The Khedive “Ismail” was removed by the Ottoman Empire after pressure from the British because he began to oppose some of their decisions. He was succeeded by his son Khedive “Tewfik” (1879-1892), who felt the danger of the “Afghani” and his ideas, so he exiled him abroad, but after planting his ideas in the country.
The Minister of War in the era of “Tawfiq” is “Osman Rafki”, a Circassian fanatic committed several unjust acts against Egyptian soldiers and officers, preventing them from promotions, which made “Ahmed Orabi” (one of those affected by “Afghani’s” ideas) to revolt against this Injustice and demanding the dismissal of “Osman Rafki,” and his demands was approved after several events and disputes.
The British and the French were watching the events with joy and pleasure, so they instigated “Arabi” to go on the path of reform, and not to fear anyone, as an evidence, what “Mohammed Abdo” mentioned in his memoirs about the Orabian Revolution (one of its poles) that the consul of France (Sent to “Orabi” and his brothers saying to them: it pleased what he sees of their patience and determination, and their insistence on the demand for justice, they must not be weakened by threats) and (Sent to “Orabi” a letter praising his stability, and encourages him not to care about the government).
Britain was doing the same, but more intensely, through its spy “Blent”, who was touring the country irritating people against the rule, and sending “Orabi” and urging him to continue pressure on the government to respond to the demands of reform, but his real purpose was to separate Egypt from the Ottoman state in preparation for occupation.
The Khedive “Tawfik” felt the danger, so he resorted to Alexandria, asking the British who were on their ships in the sea to protect his throne, and to pressure on the Ottoman Sultan to issue a publication in the disobedience of Arabi; so that people would turn away from him.
The British fabricated a massacre of the Christians in Alexandria to take it as an excuse to occupy it in 1882, under the pretext of protecting their citizens that was before the reconciliation between “Orabi” and the Ottoman Empire but the hypocrites collaborated with the British and enabled them to occupy the country.
“Orabi” did not respond to the advisors who urged him to close the Suez Canal, so that the British would not slip into the depths of the Egyptian territories, but he was persuaded by the assurances of the French engineer who had the franchisee of the Canal.
The Orabian Revolution was eliminated after the country was occupied by the British, which lasted more than 70 years (1882-1956), despite their repeated claims and statements that they will leave as soon as the calm and security of the country return.
After the British occupied Egypt, they caused corruption in all fields: political, economic and social, aided by their collaborators from the fifth column; led by the modernists and their leader The Sheikh “Mohammed Abdo,” which was for him and his students after him the main role in the westernization of the country and tame to accept the demands of the occupation.
The Khedive “Tawfik” continued in the Power and was succeeded his son “Abbas Helmi” (1892-1914), who was succeeded by “Hussein Kamel Ibn Ismail” (1914-1917), who was succeeded by “Fuad Ben Ismail” (1917-1936), who was succeeded by King “Farouk Ibn Fuad” (1936-1952), and all these Rulers were of no use or solutions, but they were a formalism interface in front of the people, but the real power was in the hands of the British.
“Gamal Abdel Nasser” and his colleagues had a military coup against the monarchy in 1952, announcing the establishment of the secular republic with the complicity and empowerment of the West, especially America, which sponsored their coup from the beginning.
The British left Egypt in 1956, after handing over power to those who can achieve their goals of westernizing the country and eradicating the manifestations of Islam; first of all, abolishing the rule of Al-Shari’a, and also after achieving their most important goal: to enable the Jews to establish a state in the land of Palestine.