Information about the Bolshevik Revolution
- Bolshevik a Russian word means the majority, Russian leftists launched this name on themselves in the early twentieth century.
- The most prominent who led them was the Russian leftist leader, “Vladimir Lenin”, who drew his ideas from the great thinker “Karl Marx” and developed his own perspective.
- The Bolsheviks founded the Red Army, which fought wars in Russia under the name of the Bolshevik Revolution, which led to the emergence of a superpower called the Soviet Union.
- The Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 was represented in two parts:
- A peaceful revolution in March.
- The beginning of the armed war in October.
The causes of the Bolshevik revolution
- The poor financial condition of farmers and workers with the control of feudalists on their crops, knowing that the farmers constituted 75% of the people.
· The Government arbitrariness and insistence of the Czar “Nicholas II” on entering World War I, despite the suffering and hunger of the Russian people.
· The spread of communist thought, the arrival of the Soviets to the House of Representatives, and the rise of voices calling for the departure of power to them from the Russian citizens.
· The deterioration of the industrial sector, and the closure of several major factories leading to a significant increase in unemployment rates.
· The unbearably high cost of living led to the Bolshevik Revolution.
Events of the Bolshevik Revolution
- In 1905, many peasants and workers protested, demanding that the Czar improves living conditions, but were confronted with guns and fire, causing dozens of deaths and hundreds of wounded in what became known as Bloody Sunday.
- In February 1917, millions of Russian Bolsheviks began demonstrations in the streets and the capital, demanding that Czar “Nicholas II” withdraw their children from World War I and improve living conditions in the country, but he ordered the army to confront the demonstrators by force but the soldiers refused orders and stood by the people.
- The army began to rebel against Czar “Nicholas II”, forcing him to abdicate to end the era of Tsarist Russia.
- An interim government was formed from a group of lawyers, bankers, and Russian businessmen.
- The central government continued arbitrary decisions, which increased the anger of the Russian street, especially the government’s decision to continue the world war despite the total popular rejection of the war.
· Demonstrations intensified, millions of workers announced a general strike, took control of factories and industrial cities.
· In August the Soviets came to power in central elections in many cities.
· In October, the armed Bolshevik revolution began, and at the end of the month, it was able to take control of the main government facilities and storm the palace with little resistance.
· The Bolsheviks founded the new government, which declared the exit of the First World War and the confiscation of the lands of the feudalists and the capitalists.
The results of the Bolshevik revolution
- The Bolshevik Revolution succeeded in eliminating Czarist rule in Russia.
- Russia’s exit from the First World War, signing a peace treaty with Germany called the Treaty of Brest Litovsk.
- Nationalization of all banks, factories, and government control over most sectors in the country.
- Raise wages, reduce working hours and give women greater rights.
- The removal of religion from the aspects of life and take control of the church and close many of them.
- The Russian civil war began between the Red Army led by the Communists, led by Lenin, the White Army, which represented the opposition forces, and the war ended in 1921 with the victory of the Red Army.