Austria

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Austria

Austria is located in the Alps between latitude 46 ° and 49 ° north and latitude 9 ° and 18 ° east, with an area of 83,879 km 2.

Its borders are shared by Slovenia, Italy, Slovakia, Liechtenstein, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Hungary.

The Neusiedler Sea is located along the Austrian-Hungarian border, as well as Lake Constance, which borders Austria with Switzerland and Germany.

It’s Worth mentioning that the Alps, which cover two-thirds of Austria’s area, are the most famous geographical features, Austria has three mountains of it: the Northern Kalk Alps, the Southern Alps and the Central Alps, which is the largest of them, as well as other geographical areas such as the Carpathian Mountains, the Pannonian plain, the Bohemian forests, and the Danube, Elbe and Rhine rivers.

The beginning of the Austrian history

Austria has a long history of many events and wars.

It was occupied for the first time when the King of The Franks and the Emperor of the Romans “Charlemagne” ruled it in 788 AD, and entered the Christian religion and encouraged the colonization of Austria.

Austria was ruled by many strains, of which only a strong dynasty, called Habsburgs was mentioned by the history, which was one of the most important aristocratic royal classes in Europe. This dynasty ruled the state of Austria for 600 years and worked to consolidate its relations with other countries, especially with Hungary by doing different work such as wars and marriage and the conclusion of some alliances.

In 1914, the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, his assassination led Austria and Hungary to declare the war against Serbia. This led to the participation of many countries in the war as Germany, and then the First World War began.

The results of the First World War were disastrous for Austria, as more than 1 million Hungary Austrians soldiers lost their lives as well as their military and political defeat by the Allies, losing a vast area of lands. By 1918, the Habsburg dynasty, which was 640 years old, was terminated and the first Austrian republic was established in history.

Historical stages of Austria

Engelbert Dollfuss was appointed as a Chancellor to the Austrian state in 1932. His main task was to address the problems that resulted from the economic recession that attacked the country.

In 1933, the government suffered a major dispersion between Christian social parties and social democratic parties.

In 1934, Dollfuss announced martial law to protect the country from Hitler, but he was assassinated. His career was continued by Kurt Schoscheng, who tried hard to preserve Austria but failed when German forces declared Austria’s occupation and integration with Nazi forces in 1938.

The first target of the German Nazi forces was the Austrian Jews, they disposed of their assets, and some 65,000 people died of the Holocaust, and 150,000 Jews managed to escape.

In 1945, the re-establishment of the Democratic Republic of Austria was announced by Chancellor Karl Reiner when he established an interim government of both communists as well as Christian Social Democrats. The great fear that attacked the Western forces had prevented the full recognition of Austria until the fall of 1945.

Between 1945 and 1952, Austria had to fight hard to remain free from Nazi rule and achieved its goal but faced economic deterioration in various fields. The United Nations Department helped the relief and rehabilitation of Austria to get out of this economic crisis.

The country faced another trend in 1949 when the Nazis participated in the general elections, and the results resulted in the victory of the Freedom Party with 16 seats in the parliament, and in successive elections in 1953, 1956, 1959, 1962, the Freedom Party maintained its relations with the People’s Party Austrian and the Socialists.

Independence of Austria

A Hungarian revolution took place in 1956.

In 1968, the “Prague Spring” invasion took place, resulting in Austria being granted asylum from its conflicts and wars. Austria then developed to become the main center between the West and the East due to its proximity to the area of Iron Curtain.

Austria became a member of the European Union in 1995, and in this age Austria has been able to assert itself and make itself influential in all political, economic and tourist fields.

Austrian Economy

Austria relies on the use of a “market” economy characterized by its development, ownership of a group of the excellent labor force, a distinctive lifestyle, and integrated with the economic systems of the European Union.

In the past years, the economy of Austria has a weak growth. Its growth in the year 2015 reached 0.9%, but in 2016 it increased to 1.4% and the unemployment in Austrian society reached 5.8%.

The financial situation in Austria is characterized by its positive nature compared to other Euro countries, but it faces many challenges and international and foreign issues, such as the weak growth and development of the international economy which negatively affects exports, and the existence of a state of economic and political uncertainty resulting from the debt problems in the continent of Europe, and other crises.

Austria’s budget deficit in 2016 reached 1.4% of GDP, while the purchasing power rate in 2016 was approximately $ 416.6 billion.

Vienna, capital of Austria

Vienna is the Austrian main city, as it is the capital, the cultural, political and economic center of Austria as well, the largest city in Austria and one of its nine states.

The population of Vienna is almost 3 million; therefore it is the seventh largest city in the European Union in terms of population, located east of Austria.

Vienna has several international organizations such as OPEC and the United Nations, and was designated in 2001 as UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Facts about Austria

Capital: Vienna.

Currency: Euro.

The largest cities: Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck, according to the population.

GDP: $ 357.8 billion in 2012.

GDP per capita: $ 42,500 in 2012.

Population: According to the 2013 census, the population in Austria was 8,221,646 people.

Ethnicity: 91.1% Austrians, former Yugoslavs 4% which are Croats, Slovenes, Serbs, Bosnians, Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, and other races 2.4%.

Language: German is the official language with 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian the official in Burgenland 1.6%, and 5.3% other languages.

Religion: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Islamic 4.2%, 3.5% other religions, and 12% without religion.

References

  1. ↑ “Austria Map”, mapsofworld,15-09-2017، Retrieved 24-02-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ أ ب ” Austria”, worldatlas, Retrieved 19-03-2018. Edited.
  3. ^ أ ب “Austria”, worldatlas, Retrieved 23-02-2018. Edited.
  4. ↑ “Austria”, britannica, Retrieved 24-02-2018. Edited.
  5. ↑ “Austria Facts”, worldatlas, Retrieved 24-02-2018. Edited.

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