The 1948 War
It is called the “Catastrophe or Al-Nakba” by the Palestinians, and the “Establishment of the State” by the Israelis.
It is a war that took place in Palestine and led to the establishment of the State of Israel and the emigration and displacement of the Palestinians from their land.
The Zionist preparations:
The Zionist leaders had begun to prepare detailed military plans since the beginning of 1945 in anticipation of the coming confrontation, and in May 1946, the “Haganah” drew up a plan called the “May 1946 Plan”.
The general policy of this plan was for what was called “countermeasures”, which included two parts:
- The warning action: confined to the area of enemy operations.
- The punitive action: No limits on its geographical scope.
The day after the partition resolution, the “Haganah” began inviting all Jews in Palestine between the ages of 17 and 25 to serve in the military and began to prepare the plan (Dalet), which was intended to acquire the areas for the establishment of the Jewish state.
In a report of the “Anglo-American” Committee in 1946, estimated the size of the Zionist military force by (62000) man.
The Palestinian and Arab preparations:
Palestinians were looking to the Arab League, which took the first step to provide the Palestinians defense needs in September 1947, known as the “Military Technical Commission”, to assess the requirements of the Palestinian defense.
The report issued conclusions that confirm the strength of the Zionists and confirm that the Palestinians have no human forces or organization or weapons or ammunition equivalent to or close to what the Zionists had, and urged the Arab countries to “Recall Full Forces” and the League allocated £ 1 million to the “Military Technical Commission”.
Before the partition resolution was issued, Major General “Ismail Safwat”, head of the “Military Technical Committee”, warned that it was impossible to overcome the Zionist forces by using irregular forces and that the Arab countries could not bear a long war.
After the Partition Resolution, the Arab states met in Cairo between 8 and 17 December 1947, where they decided to put 10,000 rifles and 3000 volunteers (Salvation Army), including 500 Palestinians and one million pounds at the disposal of the “Military Technical Committee”.
On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian state. The Zionists welcomed the Partition Resolution, while Arabs and Palestinians felt unfair.
Evolution of events after the Partition Resolution:
The fighting intensity escalated after the Partition Resolution, and at the beginning of 1948, the “Salvation Army” was formed under the leadership of “Fawzi Al-Quoz”.
By January 1948, the Zionist organization “Argonne” and “Stern” had resorted to the use of car bombs.
In March 1948, irregular Palestinian fighters blew up the headquarters of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem.
On April 12, 1948, the Arab League decided to march the Arab armies to Palestine and the political committee confirmed that the armies would not enter before the planned British withdrawal on 15 May.
The end of the mandate and the start of war:
The British Mandate expired on May 14, 1948, and the following day, the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel became active, and immediately the war began between the new state and the neighboring Arab states.
The Arab armies flowed from Egypt, Syria, Iraq and the East Jordan Emirate to Palestine and the Arab forces succeeded in achieving great victories.
On 16 May 1948, United States President “Harry Truman” admitted to the State of Israel.
The first unit of the Egyptian regular forces entered the borders of Palestine, attacked the settlements of “Kfar Darom” and “Nirim” in the Negev, three brigades of the Jordanian army also crossed the Jordan River into Palestine, and the Lebanese forces restored the villages of “Al-Malikya” and “Qods” on the Lebanese border and liberated them from the Zionist “Haganah” gangs.
The war continued in this way until the international powers intervened and imposed a truce that included the prohibition of supplying arms to any of the parties to the conflict and trying to reach a peaceful settlement.
Zionist gangs took advantage of the truce to regroup and gain arms from major powers such as Britain and the United States, which initially imposed the truce.
When the war resumed, the Zionists had the upper hand, the battles took a different course, the Arab forces suffered a series of defeats and the armed Zionist gangs managed to impose their control over vast areas of historic Palestine.
On March 3, 1949, the end of the war between the Arab armies and the armed Zionist gangs in Palestine was declared after the UN Security Council accepted Israel as a full member of the UN and the acceptance by the Arab states of the second truce.
The 1967 War or the Six Day War:
It occurred on 5 June 1967 between Israel on the one hand and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria on the other, with some Arab armies such as the Iraqi army, which was stationed in Jordan.
The Zionists called it “the six-day war” because they boasted that it lasted only six days.
One of the worst results of the war from the point of view of the Arab parties is the loss of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, and the demoralization of the Arab armies and their weapons destruction.
After the trials of the perpetrators of the military failure, and after a period of time began to unfold facts about the failure of the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian armed forces “Marshal Abdul Hakim Amer” to develop and implement the plans in the right manner, including plans to withdraw randomly.
The Security Council issued Resolution 242 in November 1967, which calls on Israel to withdraw from the territories it occupied in June 1967 and to return refugees to their homes.
A year later, the Battle of Karama took place, which was fought by the Jordanian Arab Army against the Israeli aggression, marked the first Arab victory against the Israeli army.
The Battle of “Al-Karama (dignity)” was one of the decisive battles in the history of the whole region because it gave the Arabs a boost and a moral incentive that the will and determination are an integral part of the victory over the enemies. This war resulted in the return of Jordan to large parts of the territories occupied in the 1967 war.
Israel used the psychological and media war to portray the “Six Day War” as a setback and a defeat to paralyze the Arab ability to fight, but the Israeli procrastination in implementing the UN resolution led to the Arabs thinking of war again.
The October 73 War:
The October War or the October War of Liberation was a war between Egypt and Syria on the one hand and Israel on the other in 1973.
The Zionist army received a severe blow in this war, where the major military “Barlev line” was breached on the Sinai Peninsula and the Egyptian success was overwhelming to 20 km east of the canal, but US aid to Israel and the subsequent events reduced the Egyptian victory.
The Egyptian President “Anwar Al-Sadat” was personally and closely involved with the Egyptian army leadership in planning the war, which came as a surprise to the Israeli army.
One of the most important consequences of the war is the restoration of full sovereignty over the Suez Canal, the recovery of part of the land in the Sinai Peninsula, and the destruction of the myth of the invincible army of Israel.
This war led to the agreement of Camp David between Egypt and Israel, which was held after the war in September 1978, following Sadat’s historic initiative in November 1977 and his visit to Jerusalem, and also led to the return of navigation in the Suez Canal in June 1975.
The October War or the Six Hour War:
Israel continued claiming that it has the ability to counter any Arab attempt to liberate the occupied territory, and the Western media machine reinforced these allegations by shedding light on the Israeli fortification forces in the Barlev line, the curtain sand and the Nabalm pipes that could turn the surface of the canal into a flame.
Israel’s rejection of the Rogers initiative in 1970, and its Refrain from implementing Security Council Resolution 242, led to Anwar Sadat’s resort to war to recover land lost by the Arabs in the 1967 war.
The plan was based on the Egyptian General Intelligence Service and the Syrian intelligence in planning the war, deceiving the Israeli and American security and intelligence services, and surprise Israel with an attack from both the Egyptian and Syrian fronts.
The glorious crossing came on October 6 at 2 pm, at the suggestion of Syrian President “Hafez al-Assad” after the Syrians and Egyptians differed on the date of the attack; as Egyptians prefer sunset, the sunrise is the best for the Syrians, so it was not expected to choose the afternoon hours to start the attack on the tenth of Ramadan.
Egypt started the 1973 war with an air strike consisting of around 222 fighter planes that crossed the Suez Canal simultaneously at 2:00 pm on a very low altitude, they targeted the stations of obstruction stations, airports, radar stations, air defense batteries, Groupings of individuals, armored vehicles, tanks, artillery, Petroleum and ammunition stores.
After that, more than 2,000 artillery shells were fired at the Israeli fortifications on the eastern bank of the canal, and the first wave of 8,000 Egyptian soldiers crossed the canal, half of them were martyred, and then rolled the second and third transit waves, bringing the number of Egyptian troops on the eastern bank by night up to 60,000 troops.
At that time, the Egyptian Engineers Corps was opening holes in the curtain sand using high-pressure water cannons, in six hours, this mythical line, which Israel had reported to be invincible only by using an atomic bomb, fell down.
Egypt and Syria succeeded in achieving victory, as the Barlev line was breached, the Egyptian forces inflicted heavy losses on the Israeli air force and prevented the Israeli forces from using the napalm pipes by an amazing plan. Israel was forced to abandon the Suez Canal and part of Sinai in Egypt and “Quneitra” city in Syria.
Israel failed to absorb the double Egyptian-Syrian strike, on 8 October, “Golda Meir” launched her famous call “Save Israel”, and for the first time, photographs of Israeli prisoners appeared in the international media to prove that the Arabs are capable of making victory.
End of October war:
The United States and the UN Security Council intervened and Resolution 338 was issued to stop all hostilities starting on October 22, 1973, Egypt accepted the resolution and implemented it from the same evening.
The Zionist forces violated the cease-fire resolution, and the UN Security Council issued another resolution on October 23 obliging all sides to cease fire.
Historians stated that, if the United States had not intervened to stop the war, Israel would have lost the war and the history changed.
Syria has not committed to a cease-fire and started a new war called the “war of attrition”, which aims to confirm the steadfastness of the Syrian front after Egypt left the battle.
At the end of May 1974, the war stopped after an agreement was reached to separate the forces, under which Israel evacuated the “Quneitra” city and parts of the territory occupied in 1967.