About Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte is one of the most famous military leaders, most notably in the history of France and the West.
His fame is due to his military skill in commanding the armies, as well as his revolution in the concepts of military organization and the training of troops. Napoleon is also credited with developing what is known as the Napoleonic Act, a set of laws governing French civil law.
Finally, Napoleon contributed to the agreement that took place between France and the Catholic Church, or the so-called Concorde Agreement.
The beginnings of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, the second son of lawyer Carlo Bonaparte and his wife, Lizia Ramolino.
The island of Corsica at the birth of Napoleon was under French occupation, which faced fierce resistance from the local population. His father, Carlo, supported the resistance and its leader, Pasquale Paoli, but sided with the French after Pauli fled the island. They appointed him a legal adviser to the Ajaccio region in 1771.
Napoleon studied theology at Otun School, then moved to the military college in Brine, where he spent five years.
Napoleon then completed his studies at the Paris Military Academy but was surprised by the death of his father in 1785, returning to Corsica after graduating from the Academy with the rank of Second Lieutenant in the Artillery Corps.
Napoleon, on his return to the ranks of Pauli, an ally of his ex-father, soon sided with the civil war in the island in 1793, forcing Napoleon to leave with his family.
The most famous words of Napoleon Bonaparte
The lives of great people may end in death, but they will never yield to threats.
Death does not make you a martyr, but the goal you are fighting for.
Napoleon Bonaparte ‘s Personal Life
He married Josephine de Boarnier, the widow of General Alexander de Bournier in 1796. She had two children from her former marriage and this marriage did not last very long. They separated in 1810.
He married Mary Louise, daughter of the Emperor of Austria, and blessed their marriage with the birth of their son Napoleon II on 20 March 1811.
Quick facts about Napoleon Bonaparte
- He was the first emperor of France.
- His family called him when he was young: Naples.
Napoleon was known for his fear of cats.
- Napoleon was not as short as many claimed, he was 5 feet 7 inches taller than the average male length in France at the time.
The achievements of Napoleon Bonaparte
- In 1796, Napoleon took command of the Italian army, which numbered about 30 thousand troops, and reorganized and formed, and led to many victories decisive for the Austrians.
- Napoleon emerged as one of the most prominent leaders of the French army. Napoleon’s image was enhanced by the French after his marriage to Josephine de Boarnier, the widow of General Alexander de Boarnier, one of the leaders of the French Revolution.
- Napoleon succeeded in eliminating all internal challenges in the country, especially the threat of royalists who wanted to restore France to the monarchy. He embarked on a major military campaign to Egypt to undermine Britain’s efforts to occupy it and cut off the English trade route to India.
- But his military campaign suffered a great failure and suffered great military losses, and his image was greatly shaken in the country. The battles of the French armies began, losing their battles in Italy to the Allied armies of Britain, Austria, Russia and Turkey, forcing France to abandon a large part of the territory occupied there.
- At the domestic level, unrest in France intensified, prompting Napoleon to cooperate with Emmanuel Sées, a member of the government of managers, to prepare for a coup in the country aimed at forming a new government that included Pierre Roger Doku. This government was called the “consular era”.
- Napoleon soon showed his political skills, worked on a new constitution for the country, and created a new post known as the “First Consul”.
- The incumbent had almost absolute powers, including the appointment of ministers, generals, civil servants, judges and even members of the legislative assemblies. As expected, Napoleon assumed the post of First Consul and announced the approval of the new Constitution in February 1800.
- Napoleon completed his reforms, which included other sectors of the country such as the economy, the judiciary, education, and even religious affairs and the Church. He declared that the Roman Catholic doctrine was the official doctrine of the state.
- Napoleon has also developed what is known as Napoleonic law, which denies all birth privileges, allows for religious freedom, and stipulates that government jobs must be granted to the most capable and efficient people.
- Napoleon’s reforms were popular, especially after he negotiated a peace treaty with the rest of Europe. He was re-elected consul for life in 1802, and two years later declared himself emperor of France.
- The interim peace period between France and other European countries lasted only three years. In 1803, France fought again in the face of Britain, but the British army succeeded in achieving an important naval victory over Napoleon in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, finally gave up the idea of the invasion of England.
- But his ambition did not stop there, he turned his attention to Austria and Russia, fought a major war with them, and defeated their army in the battle of the famous Austerlitz.
- Napoleon’s impressive victories followed, and the borders of the French Empire expanded considerably, paving the way for his supporters to take power in several European countries such as the Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, Spain and the German province of Westphalen.
- Napoleon’s military victories have not lasted long, and his series of defeats has been raging since 1810, which has weighed heavily on the country as a result of the high cost of military campaigns.
- The terrible blow to Napoleon’s dreams came when his military assault on Russia failed, and the French army suffered huge losses of lives and equipment.
- The news of defeats encouraged the enemies of Napoleon to lead a failed coup, as the British advanced through French territory, global pressure mounted on him, and he suffered greatly from resources, forcing him eventually to surrender to allied forces On 30 March 1814, before going into exile on the island of Alba.
- Napoleon was not allowed to remain in exile while his country was unstable, so he fled his exile in 1815 and went directly to Paris, where crowds greeted him with great joy.
- But this enthusiasm was tempered by concerns about his leadership of the country toward new wars. These fears were soon realized when Napoleon led the French army to Belgium and defeated the Prussian troops there in June 1815.
- Two days later, he suffered a humiliating defeat in the Battle of Waterloo before the British army, supported by the Prussian forces, which led him to give up power.
- Napoleon tried to install his son as Emperor of France, but the European countries refused, and insisted that Napoleon go into exile for fear of his return to power.
- So Britain sent it to the remote island of St. Helen in the South Atlantic. In exile, Napoleon spent most of his time reading, but his mental state quickly affected the lifestyle of the island, and spent the rest of his days locked in his home.
The death of Napoleon Bonaparte
His health began to deteriorate during his last days, which resulted from terrible and miserable living conditions; finally, he succumbed to his illness on 5 February 1821.
An autopsy confirmed later that he was suffering from stomach cancer. It was first burned down in St. Helena and then moved to Paris where an official funeral was held.